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Greenlight Europe. How excellent Lighting Maintenance can play its part in helping to reduce global CO2 emissions. Consider this…. Lighting represents 20% Irish electricity consumption and therefore energy-efficient lighting schemes can help to reduce costs. In retail it can be up to 40%.

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Greenlight Europe

How excellent Lighting Maintenance can play its part in helping to reduce global CO2 emissions

consider this
Consider this…..
  • Lighting represents 20% Irish electricity consumption and therefore energy-efficient lighting schemes can help to reduce costs.
  • In retail it can be up to 40%

When did you last look at your lighting installation?

some means to achieving energy savings on your lighting installation
Some means to achieving energy savings on your lighting installation
  • Points to consider
  • The C.I.B.S.E. guidelines and how these may be applied
  • Latest energy saving technologies
    • Lamps
    • Lighting Controls
why should you plan your lighting maintenance
Why should you plan your lighting maintenance?
  • Not servicing your car will save you money in the short term. However, how long will the car last?


  • All lamps have a finite life
  • Output of lamps deteriorates from the moment they are switched on
  • Light output will also reduce through an accumulation of dust/ dirt on lamps
cibse guidelines 1994 maintenance of lighting installation
Recommendation is that Designer should obtain decision from the client on the maintenance policy to be implemented throughout the life of the installation.

If this cannot be achieved, the designer must clearly state the assumed maintenance programme used to calculate and justify the value of initial illuminance. In turn, this will influence the electrical load and therefore the electricity cost. It will also influence the capital cost.

Maintenance includes replacement of failed or deteriorated lamps and control gear, the cleaning of luminaires and cleaning and redecoration of room surfaces at suitable intervals.

When designing for maintained illuminance the proposed lamp replacement procedure must be considered at the initial design stage of the installation.

CIBSE Guidelines 1994Maintenance of Lighting Installation

What is Maintained IIluminance?

  • Maintained Illuminance - The minimum light level over the task area immediately prior to cleaning/relamping cycles.
  • Maintained illuminance includes lumen maintenance factor, lamp survival factor, luminaire maintenance factor & room surface maintenance factor.
  • Lighting design illuminance should not fall below the recommended value.
  • This can mean higher initial illuminance and installed loads.
  • To minimise the increases, maintenance procedures become a more important element in the design process.
  • Design Maintenance Illuminance is the recommended Illuminance used in the lighting Specification.It is based on the task & contrast and the time duration at the task. Standard Maintained Illuminance
  • Values are provided by the CIBSE Code for Lighting 1994.


cibse lighting guidelines 1994 lamp replacement
Two factors to consider when determining the timing of lamp replacement:

Change in light output

Probability of lamp failure.

For majority of installations the most sensible procedure is to replace all the lamps at planned intervals-

group relamping.

Group replacement has visual, electrical and financial advantages over the alternative ‘spot’ replacement.

Visually- installation has uniform appearance.

Electrically---- reduces the risk of damage to control gear caused by faulty operation of lamps nearing end of life.

Financially---- arrange replacement when it causes minimum disturbance to interior, tie-in with luminaire cleaning.

CIBSE Lighting Guidelines 1994Lamp Replacement




  • The average rated life of a lamp is the result of a test in the laboratory.
  • Under this test, lamps are run in an environment which is:-
    • a. Constant temperature
    • b. Constant voltage
    • c. Still air
    • d. Dirt free
    • e. Regular switching
    • f. Vibration free
    • g. Constant operating position
    • h. Same control gear
  • Under these conditions, the point in time when 50% of the lamps have failed is deemed to be their average rated life.
maintaining lighting effectiveness
Maintaining Lighting Effectiveness



1. Uneven light levels

1. Uniform Light levels

2. Never Optimum light level

2. Optimum light level achieved

3. Increased control gear failure

3. Minimal lighting failures

4. Ineffective Use of Energy

4. Effective Use of Energy

5. Safety implications

5. Designed task levels

6 Lamp disposal problems

6. Compliant lamp disposal

7. Disruption to workplace

7. Planned non-disruptive

8. Uncontrolled costs

8. Budgeted costs




Bright Staff Like A Bright workspace!

But good lighting needs good maintenance...

  • Who will change the lamps?
  • Who will repair or replace faulty control gear?
  • Who will identify if control gear is at fault?
  • Are these people qualified?
  • If they are not qualified, what are the Health & Safety issues and what are the potential liabilities for my business?
  • What is their normal job?
  • If they are taken from their normal job, what is the cost to my business?
  • What level of productivity can you expect from an in-house engineer carrying out lighting repairs?
  • How do I measure this productivity?
  • Who orders the lamps?
  • How long does it take us to source and order the correct lamps?
  • What is the cost?
  • Is there an additional delivery cost?
  • What is the cost of Access to reach high fittings?
  • Where are my lamps stored - are they safe?
  • Is my other stock endangered by the glass and toxic metals contained in modern lamps?
retaining louvre categorisation
Retaining Louvre Categorisation

Dust Reflects light within Clean mirrored surface reflects

luminaire, which reduces maximum light downwards and minimises

downward light output and glare from luminaire in VDU screens

creates glare in VDU screens thereby retaining CAT 1/2 classification

Before Cleaning After Ultrasonic Cleaning


Focus on EnvironmentManagement of Hazardous Waste

  • EU legislation on recycling of fluorescent tubes due in 2002/3
    • Legislation exists in Germany, Belgium, France
  • Mercury contained in tubes is hazardous
    • Remains in the environment
    • Liquid and volatile at room temperature
    • Long-lasting effects.
  • Legislation will demand ecological treatment rather than disposal.
new technologies lamps
New TechnologiesLamps
  • 8ft fluorescent tubes
  • Halophosphate versus Triphosphate lamps
  • High Frequency control gear
  • Reflex lamps
  • MasterPAR
  • T5 Lamps
  • HID alternatives
  • Why use Lighting Controls ?
  • Principal Lighting Control Techniques
  • Example Systems
  • Future Developments

Why Use Lighting Controls ?

Construction process

  • Time is money
  • Lack of skilled labour
    • leads to high cost
conventional installation
Conventional wiring

Individual ceiling rose

Labour intensive

Conventional installation

Installation Techniques

  • Lighting Control Modules provide multiple socket outlets
  • ELV Switching
  • Simple plug in sensors
  • Modular wiring
  • Factory implementation
benefits to the installation process
Benefits to the Installation Process
  • Faster installation
  • Reduced materials
  • Use of unskilled labour

Controls for Comfort and Flexibility

  • User comfort = productivity
  • Flexibility to change office layouts quickly and at minimum cost

Industry & Warehousing

  • Central Manual Control
  • Daylight Based Switching
energy efficiency
Energy Efficiency
  • The largest cost of a light fitting is the energy it consumes throughout it’s life
  • Environmental issues - Greenlight Europe
  • Enhanced Capital Allowances for implementation of green technology
  • Increased control options
  • Maintain comfortable environment
  • Energy savings

Time Scheduling

Alone does not always produce savings

Should not be ‘imposed’ on the user

Use to enable/disable presence detectors

Typical uses: Retail, Industry, Signage

local user overrides
Local User Overrides

Use in combination with other controls

Infra Red - avoid the cost of switch drops

presence detection
Presence Detection

PIR/Ultrasonic or Microwave ?



Sensor responses vary wildly Think about the user of the space !

daylight linking
Daylight Linking

External control - car parks, amenity lighting

Solar threshold switching - warehouses, malls, atria

Daylight dimming - offices, retail, hospitals, schools.

what is in it for your company
What is in it for your company?
  • Saving money and improving profit margins
  • Reduces environmental consequences of your organisations activities
  • Creating working environments that support staff productivity
  • Process and product quality improvements
  • Making buildings easier to operate and maintain effectively
  • There is help for you to achieve real improvements
energy management
Energy Management
  • Monitor energy use- know where it goes
  • Implement a corporate policy
  • Involve & motivate all staff
  • Identify no-cost, low-cost ‘quick wins’
  • Invest in larger improvements
  • Effectively maintain your equipment
future developments
Future Developments

More Intelligent Sensors - combining lighting with heating,

Integration of Building Systems

Control Bus Wars

Exploitation of the Internet/Intranet protocols,

Voice Control

Wireless/RF Communications


dali benefits
  • Addressing - Simple wiring, flexible
  • Digital - “Switching” within ballast reducing costs, polarity free
  • Industry Standard - Compatibility, Easy Specification
  • Feedback - Lamp/ Ballast Status reporting in BMS systems
dali applications

Local Room Control

  • Single Controller for Several Circuits, Flexible

Intelligent Luminaires

  • Reduced Switch Cost, Presets stored in ballast


  • Reduced cost controllers, Power monitoring, lamp failure feedback, emergency options