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Please make a note… Syllabus http://gspp.berkeley.edu/iths/Cyberlife_Syllabus.htm Stephen M. Maurer smaurer@berkeley.edu Todd Fawley-King Tfawleyk@gmail.com. Cyberlife Lecture 2: Rise of the (Digital) Machines. The Story So Far…. Simplicity + Concatenation. Digital Computing.

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slide1

Please make a note…

Syllabus

http://gspp.berkeley.edu/iths/Cyberlife_Syllabus.htm

Stephen M. Maurer

smaurer@berkeley.edu

Todd Fawley-King

Tfawleyk@gmail.com

slide2

Cyberlife

Lecture 2:

Rise of the (Digital) Machines

slide4

Simplicity

+

Concatenation

slide9

Digital Computing

What is it and Why is It Good?

Technical Details

Vacuum Tubes

Computers: Clocks, Logic, Memory

Networks

History to 1960.

slide14

Electronics

“Vacuum Tubes,”

aka “Valves”

S A B

slide17

+

Vacuum Tubes

-

+

+

slide19

Logic

c

a

a

c

b

b

"AND"

a

a

c

c

b

"OR"

b

slide20

Logic

?

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

slide21

Clocks

?

Time

-

+

slide22

Clocks

Time

-

+

slide25

Better Switches?

Better Switches

Reed Switches

Fluidics

Non-Linear Optics

Holography

…and many more.

slide26

Better Switches

P

N

P

c

a

The Transistor

b

slide28

Integrated

Circuits

slide29

Communications

4

x

+

8.1

x

+

0.1

x

slide30

Communications

Equals:

. . . and it works the other way, too!

slide32

George R. Stibitz

Bell Labs (1937)

Telephone Relays

Binary Arithmetic

K-Model (1938)

Model 1 (1939) - $20,000

Models 2-5 (1940 - 45)

Paper tape, error checking,

multiplication tables, &

storage registers.

Customers: NACA and

Aberdeen

Half-Adder

S = AxorB

C = AandB

Flip-Flop

slide33

Atanasoff-Berry

“ABC Computer”

Iowa State (1937 – 39)

Arithmetic – Base 2 Logic

Memory – Condensers on

rotating drum.

Output – Cards.

No “if” statement.

Proposed 300 vacuum tube

machine was never completed.

John Vincent

Atanassof

Clifford

Berry

slide34

Konrad Zuse

Z1 Binary Addition (1936).

Mechanical, punched tape.

Z2 Relays (1940).

Z3 Programmable (1941).

2600 relays.

Z4 Refined Z3 (1945)

2000 vacuum tubes.

slide35

ENIAC

1939: Fuses instead of vacuum tubes.

1941: An electronic Differential Analyzer

- $486,804.22

- 200,000 man hours

174kw, 17468 vacuum tubes,

500,000 soldered joints, 70,000

resistors, 10,000 capacitors.

Completed in the Fall of 1945, used

on “The Super.”

John Mauchly

Presper Eckert

slide38

The Idea of Software

Moore School Summer School & von Neumann “First Draft.”

The Idea of Software

50% of Costs by the 1950s

IBM’s Share Program

slide39

Postwar

New Government Needs

Weapons Physics & “The Super”

Cryptography & Intelligence

Air Defense

Business Machines?

Punch cards dominant until 1962.

Commercializing Computers

Fragile, Expensive, Unreliable

slide40

Postwar

Concurrent Innovation

Internal Memory

1945: Delay lines, Cathode ray tube, drum memory.

1949: Magnetic core.

External Memory

1945: Paper tape, cards, drum.

1950s: Plastic tape, disks.

CPU

Vacuum tubes, transistors (1947), integrated circuits (1959).

slide41

University & Government

Machines

ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC (Cambridge 1949), ILLIAC (Champagne-Urbana 1951), JOHNNIAC (Rand 1953), MADM (Manchester 1953), SWAC (Bureau of Standards 1950), MANIAC (Los Alamos 1952), IAS Machine (Institute for Advanced Study 1951), Ordvac (University of Illinois for Aberdeen 1951), ACE (Turing-built 1946), etc., etc.

slide42

Commercial Sector

Eckert & Mauchly: Electronic Control Company (1946)

Target customers:

Pari-mutuel companies, aircraft companies, insurance, atomic energy, mapping, academia, aircraft.

Capital, Engineering & Marketing problems

Remington Rand (1950)

slide43

Commercial Sector

Eckert & Mauchly:

Engineeering Research Associates

Navy and NSA Prototypes

First Commercial computers

Commercial Weakness

Manuals, marketing, input-output equipment.

Remington-Rand (1952)

slide45

Whirlwind & SAGE

The Return of IBM

Whirlwind II/SAGE

A $500m subcontract

slide47

Whirlwind & SAGE

A Huge Project

275 tons/919 miles of cable/50,000 vacuum tubes/consumed 3MW of power

800 programmers -- 20% of the world’s supply 500,000 lines of code.

Advanced Technology

Magnetic core memory, large real time OS, overlapping of computation and IO functions, use of phone lines, cathode ray tube displays with light pens, high reliability.

slide48

The 1950s: All Transistor Computers

Software comes of Age

System/360

1960 Decision

Announced 1964

Delivered 1966

slide49

ARPA

A Golden Age?

Money: $10 million 1962)/$15 million (1963).

Interactive computing.

ARPAnet: Carrot and Stick.

Institutions: OSRD, again?

Portfolio Management: J.C. Licklider.

John C. Licklider

(1915 – 1990)

slide51

Claude Shannon

(1916-2001)

Bell Labs

Information Theory

Bits

Coding English

The SETI Problem

slide53

Today’s Puzzle:

Why didn’t the private sector get there

first?

slide54

Lessons

Who Funded It?

Understanding Customer Needs

Customer = Government

Transition to Mass Markets

von Neumann’s Mistake

slide55

Announcements

Syllabus URL problems?

Readings

slide56

Please make a note…

Syllabus

http://gspp.berkeley.edu/iths/Cyberlife_Syllabus.htm

Stephen M. Maurer

smaurer@berkeley.edu

Todd Fawley-King

Tfawleyk@gmail.com