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First Aid Practice. Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider . You should be able to recognise the key signs of common health emergency services and know how to carry out procedures for dealing with them. .

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First Aid Practice


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    1. First Aid Practice Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider You should be able to recognise the key signs of common health emergency services and know how to carry out procedures for dealing with them.

    2. Q&A – who is at risk and why? • Starter – list a range of health emergencies that people may have. • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    3. AfL • Burns and scalds • Wounds and bleeding • Fractures • Loss of conscientiousness • Breathing difficulties, for example, asthma, anaphylactic shock • Factors that could cause health emergencies • Illness • Lack of mobility • Emotional distress • Accidents, for example, tripping over a curled up carpet • Lack of special awareness • Challenging behaviour • Staffing shortages • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    4. Minor emergencies • In groups list as many areas or things that can cause people to have a minor injury • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    5. AfL • Slips • Trips • Falls • Fractures • Wounds bleeding • Loss of conscientiousness • Hazards in settings such as – unprotected wires, faulty chairs, carpets, poor lighting. • It is essential that care setting staff are trained in order to deal with this.

    6. Who could deal with minor emergencies? • Training may be a one or two day course • There should be people in every care setting trained in first aid • This can be up to five days for an appointed first aider. • Points to remember, the worker could be liable under health and safety law if the casualty dies as a direct or indirect result of any first aid that is carried out. • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    7. :Task 1 - Create your own information poster using the images provided, write down the laws and information surrounding the role of the first aider. • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    8. Bruising – trips- sprains – fractures – loss of consciousness – scalds from kettles and bath water – steam – saucepans – touching a hot iron – sharp objects – knives – serious bleeding from glass embedded wounds – nose bleeds – minor cuts

    9. The principles of first aid • Speaking to the casualty in a calm way • Thinking logically • Being in charge of the situation • Answering questions truthfully • Talking to the casualty and reassuring them • Staying calm • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    10. The principles of first aid • Always check for any immediate danger – by checking to see is there is anything or person that could cause further harm to the first aider and casualty • Make a risk assessment - make sure the area is safe, the first aider should always put their own safety first before anyone else. These are the basic principles. • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    11. Task 2 make a risk assessment • Think of yourself as the first aider in this image – what do you need to assess? • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    12. Responsibilities of the first aider • Task 3 - Looking at these words – write up a list of priorities that you will need to make: • Assessment • Pain • Unconscious • Gently shake them • Hearing them, eyes open • Pulse • Can you hear me • First aider must report what procedures they have carried out • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    13. Case study • Sally is a care assistant at the Rising Sun Residential Home. One morning, Sally is summoned by the call alarm in the lounge of the residential home by one of the clients. The client is sitting in a chair and is quite distressed. She has pricked her finger in several places while sewing. The needle is embedded in her finger. • How should Sally deal with the client? • Who should she call? Why? • What action should Sally take after the emergency first aid has been? Why?

    14. Information – make notes from the you-tube • Task 4 - What information is being given? Write this down as you listen. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qWib6WfW18M&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F6mvS8XTAg0&feature=related • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    15. Task 5 • Assessment for examination papers Case study • Thomas and his friend are walking down the street when, unexpectedly, Phillip trips over and fails badly damaging his knee. Phillip is clearly in a lot of pain and is very distressed. • Task 1 – list the actions that Thomas should take to show he understands the responsibilities of the first aider • Task 2 – explain what is meant by the term, ‘the principles of first aid’. Use examples to illustrate the points made. • Task 3 – if there were three casualties, how would the first aider prioritize needs? • Task 4 – list five facts that should be given when calling the emergency service. Give a reason for each fact given. • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    16. Task 7 - who is at risk of accidents a residential home?

    17. Preventative measures include: • Good housekeeping - poor standards of cleaning and untidiness are a major cause of slips, trips and falls at work. Keep work areas clean and tidy, with floors and access routes clear of obstacles or obstructions. Rubbish should be regularly removed to a designated area outside the building. • Lighting - provide good lighting levels, without glare or shadows, particularly on access routes and staircases. External lighting may be necessary to walkways or staircases used by staff and visitors outside the workplace. • Flooring - should be level and even and be checked regularly for any damage. Loose carpets or mats cause many accidents. Repairs should be made as quickly as possible. Any changes of gradient should be highlighted and slippery surfaces replaced or treated with a non-slip coating. • Stairways - handrails must be provided to all stairways and they must be securely fixed to the structure of the staircase or adjoining wall. It is important that high visibility and non-slip nosings (that is the very edge of a step) with a good colour contrast are used to help prevent slips and trips. Ideally the nosing should be square - a curved nosing makes it more difficult to judge where the very edge of the step is. A single step or ramp should be clearly marked. • Spillages - ensure staff know who to report these to so that they can be cleaned up immediately. Make sure proper signs are used when any floors are wet or are in the process of being cleaned. • Trailing cables - ensure electrical equipment or telephones are placed so that cables don't trail across floors or access routes. Use cable managers, cable ties or floor cable covers to remove tripping hazards.

    18. How to deal with different types of health care emergencies • Burns and scalds: • What is the difference between a burn and a scald?

    19. Things to note • For major burns medical assistance should b e sort immediately • Any jewellery, watches or clothing should be removed, provided they are not sticking to the wound • Never attempt to remove clothing that has been on fire from a person, as it will be most likely stuck to the wound. • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    20. Wounds and bleeding • Try to stop the bleeding if there are no sharp objects in the wound • Limit the amount of infection that comes into contact with the wound. • When coming into contact blood is a body fluid, what should you consider? When handling blood the first aider should maintain aseptic techniques at all times. This involves washing hands in antibacterial soap and , if possible, wearing disposable gloves when dealing with the casualty. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vYwypSLiaTU • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    21. How to deal with open bleeding wounds • If there is nothing obstructing the wound then the first aider should use a sterile dressing over it • If, however, there is an obstruction in the wound, such as glass, then this should never be removed under any circumstances, as this may cause the casualty to bleed further. • Therefore, direct pressure should be applied to the wound. The first aider should make sure that the dressing is applied around the object rather than over it. • Now carry out the measures! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiT3I5Cuxdk&playnext=1&list=PL309958F819308184

    22. factures • A facture is a break or a crack in a bone. • Symptoms can be hard to see but could include: • Bones protruding from the injury • Swelling around the injury • Discoloration around the area of the injury • Joints may be in very strange positions • The client will almost certainly be in lots of pain • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    23. Facts to remember as a first aider dealing with a client with a facture • Make the client comfortable • Talk to them and reassure them • Support the affected limb with padding such as towels or any clothing • Seek medical advice immediately • Never try to make any sort of bandage splint for the affected area • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    24. Now write up a procedure for administering help to a facture client • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    25. Loss of consciousness • Summon medical help immediately • Find out what has caused the unconscious state • Try to look for any wounds • Perhaps the person has a condition diabetes • Keep the airways open, this should be done by tilting the chin and head back a little • if the person does not come to consciousness then the first aider should put them in recovery position • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    26. In groups carry this out • Grabbing the far wrist, bring the arm across their chest and hold the back of the casualties hand against their own cheek nearest to you. • With your free hand hold the leg farthest away, just above the knee. • Pull the leg up, and remember to keep the foot flat on the floor at this stage. • Keeping the hand pressed to the cheek, gently pull the knee towards you onto their side. • Position the leg so that the knee and hip are bent and at right angles. • This will prevent the casualty rolling onto their face. • Gently tilt the head back so that the casualties airway is open, and adjust the hand so it keeps the head tilted upwards. • Check regularly for breathing until help arrives

    27. Breathing difficulties • Symptoms • Choking • Red face that may later turn grey • The person will quite often be pointing at their throat or mouth in a state of panic • Difficulty breathing • Being unable to speak

    28. Choking is a life-threatening emergency. For a victim who is standing:Stand behind the victim and wrap your arms around the victim's waist. Grasp your hands in front of the victim; the hand that is resting against the victim's abdomen should be in a fist. Make sure that the fist is positioned between the tip of the breastbone and the navel. • First, ask the victim if she is alright. This question is less to ascertain how the victim feels and more to gauge if the victim can speak, which would mean the food is not lodged in the windpipe; persist in asking until the victim verbalizes their answer or obviously cannot speak. • Do not slap the victim on the back -- this may further lodge the food in the windpipe. • The Heimlich Maneuver can be performed on victims who are either conscious or unconscious and can be performed on victims who are standing, sitting or lying down. You can even perform the maneuver on yourself. Heimlich Maneuver • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    29. For a victim who is lying down: • Roll the victim onto his or her back. Kneel at the victim's side, straddle her hips, or straddle one of her thighs. Your position isn't that important: choose the one that is most comfortable and affords you the greatest strength. • Place one of your hands on top of the other; the heel of your bottom hand should be positioned between the top of the breastbone and the navel. Move forward so that your shoulders are directly above the victim's abdomen. • Press your hands forcefully into the victim's abdomen with a rapid, upward thrust. Repeat the thrusting until you can see the piece of food; you may have to remove it from the victim's mouth. Act quickly so that the victim doesn't breathe it in again. • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    30. Action for asthma • They need their inhaler • The first aider will need to find this and make sure it is administered immediately • If the attach is very bad then calling for medical assistance is necessary • In hospital a nebuliser will be used • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    31. Anaphylactic shock • This is cased by a serious allergic reaction • FOODS peanuts, shell fish, eggs, insects and many more • The treatment is the use of a adrenalin through an injection. • Training is given for this • Often a casualty will have one with them, they are often stored in the refrigerator • Lesson objective – to learn the principles of first aid practice and the responsibilities of the first aider

    32. Preventing the spread of infection • It is important to make sure that anyone receiving or giving first aid is protected from infection. • This means adopting universal precautions

    33. Legislation One pair of disposable gloves Guide leaflet • Legislation affects the way workers carry out their jobs in the work place. • Legislation is there to make sure that everyone knows what to do in the event of an accident. Two sterile eye pads What should the work place provide? Two sterile dressings Six medium-sized individually wrapped sterile unmediated wound dressings Six safety pins Twenty individually wrapped sterile dressings assorted sizes Four individually wrapped triangular bandages The first aid kit must have -

    34. How much provision should an employee have? • Factors depend on • The number of employed people • Whether those people are working with hazardous materials • The level of categories of risk, for example lower – shops, medium – care homes and so on.

    35. The employer must have a procedureAct – Teh Health and Safety (first aid) regulations 1981 • An accident book – • Data, time and place of the accident • Details of what you saw • Conditions of person after accident • People involved • Comments from any persons involved

    36. ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING • Case study – I am the named person for health and safety in our D&T department : • List eight things that should be in our first aid box • Name the regulations that require a first-aid box to be available at the nursery • Explain how the regulations affect our department • List four pieces of information that the department must keep if an accident occurs and explain why each must be included • What are the likely effects of not following the regulations • Explain how the regulations are likely to have a beneficial effect on: • Clients • Care workers