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Communication Protocols II. Ninth Meeting. TCP/IP family. TCP/IP Protocol. IP Getting messages across the network. No guarantee, ( best-effort delivery service) TCP Transport layer protocol Sits on top of IP End-to-end connectivity

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tcp ip protocol
TCP/IP Protocol
  • IP
    • Getting messages across the network.
    • No guarantee, (best-effort delivery service)
  • TCP
    • Transport layer protocol
    • Sits on top of IP
    • End-to-end connectivity
    • Guarantees error-free transportation of messages (reliable service)
    • • Application layer protocols that run on top of TCP are
      • e-mail
        • simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP)
      • Accessing world-wide web
        • hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP).
slide4
SMTP
  • Exchange of e-mail messages between hosts
  • Commands between a mail client and a mail server:
    • READY;
    • HELO;
    • MAIL FROM;
    • OK;
    • RCPT TO;
    • DATA;
    • START MAIL INPUT;
    • QUIT;

Imad@aou.com

aou.com Mail Server

250 READY aou.com

HELLO auo.com

250 OK

Imad = 250

Server hosts indicates that connection has been established and gives host address.

‘hello from client’, giving clients host address.

acknowledgement from the server.

slide5
SMTP
  • Exchange of e-mail messages between hosts
  • Commands between a mail client and a mail server:
    • READY;
    • HELO;
    • MAIL FROM;
    • OK;
    • RCPT TO;
    • DATA;
    • START MAIL INPUT;
    • QUIT;

Imad@aou.com

aou.com Mail Server

MAIL FROM imad@auo.com

250 OK

Intended recipients’ e-mail addresses.

Client is starting a mail transaction and gives the user’s email address.

RCPT TO akram@auo.com

slide6
SMTP
  • Exchange of e-mail messages between hosts
  • Commands between a mail client and a mail server:
    • READY;
    • HELO;
    • MAIL FROM;
    • OK;
    • RCPT TO;
    • DATA;
    • START MAIL INPUT;
    • QUIT;

Imad@aou.com

aou.com Mail Server

250 OK

DATA auo.com

250 START MAIL INPUT

client is ready to send a message

host address.

server is ready to receive the message..

slide7
SMTP
  • Exchange of e-mail messages between hosts
  • Commands between a mail client and a mail server:
    • READY;
    • HELO;
    • MAIL FROM;
    • OK;
    • RCPT TO;
    • DATA;
    • START MAIL INPUT;
    • QUIT;

Imad@aou.com

aou.com Mail Server

Send data ends with CRLF

250 OK

QUIT

client closes the connection.

CRLF (carriage return line feed) = end of message

the tcp ip layers
The TCP/IP Layers
  • Internet layer
    • Packet routing and avoidance of congestion
    • The protocol used is the internet protocol (IP).
  • Transport layer
    • End-to-end service
    • The protocols used are transmission control protocol (TCP) and user datagram protocol (UDP).
    • TCP is a connection-oriented
    • UDP is a connectionless (video streaming)
  • Application layer
    • Large number of high-level protocols.
      • Telnet, FTP, SMTP, DNS, HTTP
  • Host-to-network layer
    • Ethernet in local area networks,
    • Serial link through a modem and
    • telephone cable in wide area networks.
packets data format
Packet are too large = Long delays and re-transmission in case of failures.

Packet are too small = Inefficient use of communication channel

Packets: Data format

Header Footer

Header Footer

tcp header
TCP Header
  • URG (urgent)
  • ACK (valid acknowledgement number)
  • PSH (push or handed)
  • RST (reset the connection)
  • SYN (synchronize for handshaking)
  • FIN (finish sending data)