AS SETTLEMENT. SITE FACTORS. 1 - Protection / Defence
1 - Protection / Defence
It was especially important to protect settlements from those who wished to attack. A good vantage point to watch for this was a hill, and many castles and forts were built on hills to watch for attackers. However due to technology, most of these vantage points are no longer as important. Missiles can be used to attack places 100s of km away.
Washing, drinking and cooking all need water, and it was vital to have an adequate supply especially during the summer. Rivers are also good for transport. Springs, wells and rivers provided supplies. Today most of the water is now piped water. It can be made available everywhere as long as money and technology is available.
It was important then and is still important to ensure that settlements are not built on areas that will flood, or are marshy (as the settlement will sink). This isn't always possible to see, particularly if the floods only occur every few years, or there isn't a flood whilst building the settlement.
Rivers can be useful supplies of water in themselves, or agents of flooding. But what is important about rivers as a site factor is that they can be crossed, either by bridge or ford. A river that couldn't be crossed would have been a problem for early settlements, if they couldn't escape across a river during an attack. Rivers can now be crossed by building bridges, but these are expensive.
Either wood or stone was needed to build early settlements, so a forest, wood or hillside with crags was needed to provide the materials. This is not so important today, as houses are built of brick and slate, which are easily provided. This has been made possible by technology in construction.
Not as important today, but early settlements would need wood for fuel. It was therefore vital that the settlement was near trees.
It is extremely difficult to build a settlement on land with a gradient (such as a hillside) and so land should be flat wherever possible. This should not be confused, as it often is, with low-lying land: the top of a high hill or plateau could be flat too. It is possible to build a settlement now on a gradient, but it is much more time consuming and expensive.
It is important the direction that the settlement faces, and this is geographically known as aspect. In early settlements, it was important that agricultural land faced south so that the sun shone directly on the land. Building a settlement in a valley provided a way to keep out of harsh winter winds.
The idea location was in an area suitable for both the rearing of animals and growing crops. The quality and quantity of farm produce depended on climate, soil fertility and type.
This is the actual place where a settlement is located.
E. g. on a river bend, on top of a hill, etc.
The location of a settlement in relation to the surrounding area.
E. g. ‘near a bridging point’ or ‘on a route centre’.
The purpose for which the settlement grew up.
E. g. port, ecclesiastical centre, regional centre, industrial centre, newtown, etc.
The shape of the settlement.
There are six forms shown on your handout which will now be covered in detail. Add any extra notes to your sheet.
This is usually a farmhouse found either in areas of extreme adverse physical conditions or in areas of pioneer settlement where land was divided into planned lots.
This consists of 2 - 3 buildings, perhaps forming a hamlet, and separated from the next small group of buildings by 2 - 3 km.
Buildings grouped together, originally for defensive purposes as well as for social and economic reasons. Usually found around a cross-roads
Similar to the nucleated type, but the buildings are not so close together. They are spread out around the settlement.
The buildings in this type of settlement are strung out along a road, river, dyke or canal in a line.
These are near enough to large cities to house the workforce. Tend to contain small crescent shaped estates with individual buildings on.
Urbanization: (= an increasing number of people living in urban areas (cities)). There are 3 main causes of this:
4. Typically found on cheap
Unwanted land near rivers
Or railways or places prone
Where poor migrants have
come to set up basic homes
using whatever materials
they can – eg Mexico City
6. Sense of community
Everyone is in it
Together. Chance of starting
A self help scheme
What do you need to know today?
2. Urban models attempt to show those differences.
Burgess suggested that towns grew outward from the centre in a concentric pattern. This means that buildings become more recent closer to the edge of a city. It is possible that up to 5 rings may develop:
A - Central Business District (CBD):
- most accessible to the largest number of people
- contains services such as shops, offices, banks, etc.
- multi-storey buildings as land is very expensive (build upwards to save cost)
B - ‘Twilight Zone’ - has 2 sections:
1 - wholesale light manufacturing (transitional)
2 - low class residential (old inner city areas):
- 19 Century terraced buildings
- no gardens
- cheap, dirty slum areas
- GRID IRON street pattern
- high rise blocks were built after slums were pulled down
- attract crime
- old industries found here
INNER CITY HOUSING: SMALL, RUN DOWN, OLD, UGLY, CHEAP = TERRACED (SEVERAL LINKED)
C - Council Estates:
Semi-detached housing with gardens in large estates. Less expensive private estates also here. Not top quality (medium class residential). INTER WAR AREA
D - Commuter Zone:
High class residential area. Private, top quality housing. Detached and semi-detached on cheap land. People can live here as are prepared to pay to get to work.
E - Countryside Areas
(suburb / exurbs):
Countryside surrounding the urban area. Can also contain villages / hamlets in which town / city workers live.
Increase in vegetation
This city transect shows a cross section through a city. The CBD is located in the centre of the diagram and the other areas are clearly marked. On your diagram, add 10 labelled arrows which show changes in the three quality of life environments towards and away from the centre of the city. Examples: traffic, costs, vegetation, etc.
Examples of labels
Increase in vegetation
Increase in building height
Decrease in traffic congestion
Increase in crime
Increase in housing cost
Decrease in space
Decrease in land costs
Increase in competition for land
Decrease in services
Decrease in car ownership
Hoyt proposed the idea that towns grew as sectors or "wedges". That means that if, for example, industry grew up in one part of a 19th century town, future industry would then develop in that sector. As the town grew, so would the area of industry and therefore it would grow out in a wedge shape.
A – Central Business District
B1 – Wholesale Light Manufacturing
B2 – Low Class Residential
C – Council Estates
D – Commuter Zone (Suburbs)
E - Countryside
Cities in LEDCs have a very different land use pattern to those in MEDCs. The CBD is dominated by modern administrative and commercial activities. Richer people live in modern high-rise apartments around the CBD. Recently arrived migrants from rural areas live in derelict land and on the outskirts.
Housing quality decreases with distance from the CBD, unlike in MEDCs, where quality increases with distance from the CBD.