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Africans in the Colonies. Slavery in the North and South. Amistad Discussion . Choose 3 out of the 7 photos on the next slide. With a partner, answer the following questions: What does this photo represent? Why was this scene significant to the movie?

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africans in the colonies

Africans in the Colonies

Slavery in the North and South

amistad discussion
Amistad Discussion
  • Choose 3 out of the 7 photos on the next slide.
  • With a partner, answer the following questions:
    • What does this photo represent?
    • Why was this scene significant to the movie?
    • What can this image tell us not only about the story of the Amistad, but of slavery in general?
  • This is NOT a Journal.
unit 2 journal 3
Unit 2, Journal #3

The attitudes of white Americans toward black Americans were crucial in making possible life-long, hereditary slavery. These attitudes include the following:

  • Africans are physically different from Europeans
  • The black race is inferior to the white race
  • The black race is incapable of bettering itself through formal education but needs white teaching
  • Black people lack character and nobility and are basically child-like
  • Natural rights apply to white people not to black people
  • Unless black people are kept under strict control, they pose a mortal threat to white people
  • Any person with any visible African ancestry is considered black
  • ANSWER:
    • How do you think these attitudes came about?
    • How were they perpetuated in America? On Southern plantations?
slave torture
Slave Torture
  • Whipping
  • Beating
  • Starving
  • Forced, intense labor
  • Rape
  • Isolation
  • Slaveowners—

Never charged with murder.

WHY ALL OF THIS VIOLENCE?

slave torture1
Slave Torture
  • Helped to keep slaves in their place;
    • Stop ideas of rebellion
    • Stop ideas of resistance
      • Keep slaves in fear
      • Degrade them to nothing
      • Prevent them from feeling “human”
  • On the other hand, it was not always harsh and violent.
    • It was BENEFICIAL to slave owners to keep slaves relatively content.
legalities
Legalities
  • Outlawed teaching slaves to read and write
  • Slaves and their offspring are property
  • Slave marriages are not recognized
    • Interracial love is unheard of
    • Interracial relations is not
northern slavery
Northern Slavery
  • The South is recognized for slavery because slave populations were much greater than in the North.
    • Slaves were not as necessary- wheat and corn.
  • Slaves had a greater legal standing in the North
    • Sue and be sued
    • Right to appeal to colonial courts
    • Could offer testimony against whites in cases not involving Africans
    • Slavery and racial prejudices still existed…Still considered less than human
  • Forbade them to gather together/carry weapons
what is resistance
What is resistance?
  • Resistance – n.,

1. the act or power of resisting, opposing, or withstanding.

2. the opposition offered by one thing, force, etc., to another.

what types of resistance were available to slaves
What types of resistance were available to slaves?
  • Work Environment
  • Theft
  • Flight
  • Armed
  • Cultural?
work environment
Work Environment
  • A response to increased workload, meager rations, etc.
    • Slowing Work
    • Feigning Illness
    • Breaking tools
    • Sabotaging Production
work environment1
Work Environment
  • Why would these methods be successful?
    • Attempt to maintain some control of their work
    • Little a master could do to stop this without running the risk of more problems
  • How could a master stand to BENEFIT from these types of resistance?
    • If they kept slaves content, they would work harder – increase output and efficiency.
theft
Theft
  • Stole fruits, vegetables, livestock, tobacco, liquor and money from masters
theft1
Theft
  • Justifications:
    • Rations provided too few calories and not enough nutrition
    • Master’s abundance should be shared with those who produced it
    • If slaves are property, how can they “steal” anything the master owns?
    • Allows for further production
flight
Flight
  • Started as early as 1640 in Virginia and Maryland
  • Runaways typically African-born males (numerical majority in 18th century)
  • Testament to terrible conditions of slavery
    • Punishments: whipping, branding, severing the Achilles tendon
flight1
Flight
  • Where did escaped slaves go?
    • Native American communities
    • Virginia/North Carolina swampland
    • Canada
    • Free states in American North
armed resistance
Armed Resistance
  • Why was armed resistance so infrequent?
    • Risky/Severe consequences if failed – broken on the wheel, decapitation, burned alive, etc.
    • Slaves’ activities closely monitored by masters
    • Masters monopolize armed power
    • Other mechanisms of white control – militias, local police, vigilantes
  • Were the men and women who took part so desperate that they preferred death? Did they truly believe they could succeed?
    • 9 slave revolts in the (now) U.S. between 1691 and 1865
armed resistance1
Armed Resistance
  • The Stono Rebellion – 1739
    • 20 slaves gathered on the Stono River
      • With guns and other weapons, they killed several planter families
      • Marched South
      • Beating drums loudly, inviting other slaves to join
    • Plan to flee to Florida (Spanish-owned)
    • White militia surrounds them
      • Died in battle and were executed once caught
  • Success/Failure?
  • How did this rebellion affect Southerners?
cultural
Cultural
  • Forged a unique blend of all African cultures to create a common bond that would be used as a psychological weapon to resist their masters.
  • African or African-American language
    • Gullah
  • Familial bonds – built new families
  • Pregnancies
  • Music – some spirituals that guided escape
  • Dance – “Ringshout”
  • Religion – combination of African and American tradition
cultural1
Cultural
  • Is this resistance, or is this coping?
    • You decide!
  • Did cultural resistance defy the notion of slaves as property?