Land Use Influences on Water, Sediment and Nutrients in the Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models...
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Land Use Influences on Water, Sediment and Nutrients in the Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples. Lester McKee (PhD) Watershed Program Manager San Francisco Estuary Institute (SFEI). San Francisco Estuary Institute. Presentation Outline.

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Land Use Influences on Water, Sediment and Nutrients in the Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples

Lester McKee (PhD)

Watershed Program Manager

San Francisco Estuary Institute (SFEI)


Presentation outline

San Francisco Estuary Institute Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples

Presentation Outline

  • Historic conceptual model for water and sediment

  • Modern conceptual model for water and sediment

  • Examples of impacts

  • Conceptual models for nutrients

  • Examples of nutrient impacts


Overview of changes

San Francisco Estuary Institute Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples

Overview of Changes

  • Channel have been:

    • Straightened

    • Strengthened or lined

    • Connected

  • Drainage density has been increased

  • Result

    • More water drains of faster

    • Sediment supply is more connected

    • Nutrients and other chemical residues drain off faster


Soda realignment of road and creek
Soda - Realignment of Road and Creek Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples


Lower soda creek silverado napa r reach
Lower Soda Creek Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and ExamplesSilverado-Napa R. Reach


Lower soda creek silverado napa r reach1
Lower Soda Creek Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and ExamplesSilverado-Napa R. Reach

1942

1999


St helena

San Francisco Estuary Institute Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples

St. Helena


Sulphur alluvial fan reaches
Sulphur - Alluvial Fan Reaches Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples

  • Storage of large volumes of sediment

  • Discontinuation of gravel mining in 2002

  • Aggradation and potential flood risks


Sulphur lowest reaches
Sulphur Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples - Lowest Reaches

  • Highly affected by the town of St. Helena

  • Entrenched

  • Large amount of bank revetment

  • Water quality affected by runoff

  • Invasive species, primarily Arundo donax

  • Some areas with no riparian vegetation


Carneros ck revetment
Carneros Ck. Revetment Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples


Carneros ck bank erosion
Carneros Ck. Bank Erosion Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples


Carneros ck bank erosion1
Carneros Ck. Bank Erosion Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples


Nutrients

San Francisco Estuary Institute Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples

Nutrients


Null hypothesis

San Francisco Estuary Institute Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples

Null Hypothesis

H(0) Land use or human population have no influence on nitrogen or phosphorus concentrations in flowing water bodies within the Napa River watershed.

  • Accept H(0) if there was reasonable doubt that anthropogenic factors strongly influence water quality

  • If reject H(0) then we would need to develop and test alternate hypotheses (i.e. develop monitoring/management questions)


Conceptual models to test null hypotheses against

San Francisco Estuary Institute Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples

Conceptual Models to Test Null Hypotheses Against

  • Nutrient concentrations should be below WQ standards

  • Seasonal variation should be minor (<10x)

  • Little spatial variation either between subwatersheds or in a downstream direction

  • Nitrate << organic nitrogen

  • Phosphate << organic phosphorus


Sampling locations selected for beneficial uses and coverage
Sampling Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and ExamplesLocations*selected for beneficial uses and coverage


Wq guidelines
WQ Guidelines Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples

NOx 1,129 µg/L

TDN 500 µg/L

Phosphate 30 µg/L

TDP 30 µg/L


Seasonal variation

San Francisco Estuary Institute Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples

Seasonal Variation


Downstream variation
Downstream Variation Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples


Reasons for rejecting h 0
Reasons for Rejecting H(0): Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples

  • Except in headwater reaches, concentrations of NOx, NH3 and PO43- were high relative to expected concentrations in pristine watersheds.

  • Concentrations of NOx varied greatly between sampling locations and increased in a downstream direction in relation to anthropogenic factors.

  • Total dissolved nitrogen was dominated by NOx and total dissolved phosphorus was dominated by PO43-.

  • Approximately 85% of the sampling locations exceeded EPA guidelines in Level III Eco-Region 6 for TN (500 µg/L) and ~92% of the sampling locations exceeded EPA guidelines in Level III Eco-Region 6 for TP (30 µg/L).

  • NOx concentrations were highest during the winter months indicating considerable seasonal variation greater than would be expected in a natural system.

  • NOx correlated significantly with population and urban environmental variables during the winter, spring and early summer and during the wet season only with agricultural and commercial land use variables


Conclusions

San Francisco Estuary Institute Napa Valley Watershed: Conceptual Models and Examples

Conclusions

  • Work to-date on water, sediment, and nutrients in the Napa River watershed suggests a level of impact associated with historic and current human land and water use

  • The questions that stakeholders and the public have to answer is:

    • Is this acceptable given multiple societal needs?

    • What goals do we set for the future?