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Animalia. multicellular, eukaryotic, no cell wall, heterotrophs, capable of movement, reproduce sexually, body symmetry (radial or bilateral) 9 Phyla- 8 invertebrate and 1 vertebrate. Invertebrate- Porifera. Porifera- two cell layers, collar cells w/flagella, filter feeders, ex. sponges.

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Animalia


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    1. Animalia multicellular, eukaryotic, no cell wall, heterotrophs, capable of movement, reproduce sexually, body symmetry (radial or bilateral) 9 Phyla- 8 invertebrate and 1 vertebrate

    2. Invertebrate- Porifera • Porifera- two cell layers, collar cells w/flagella, filter feeders, ex. sponges

    3. Invertebrate- Cnidarian • Cnidarians- Stinging cells, radial symmetry, simple nervous system only stimulus and response, central cavity only one body opening, ex. jellyfish, coral, hydra, sea anemone

    4. Invertebrate- worms • Plathyhelmenthes: flat worms, only one body opening, three cell layers,ex. Tapeworm, Fluke, Planarian, Marine worms • Nematode: round worms, first with two body openings, 3 cell layers, many parasitic, Heartworm, Roundworm, Vinegar Eel • Annelid: segmented worms, two body openings, 3 cell layers, beginning of circulatory system, and digestive system (crop), ex. Earthworm and Leech

    5. Worm images • Plathyhelmenthes Nematode • Annelid

    6. Invertebrate Mollusk • soft body, more complex body systems developing, eyes and nervous system, levels of communication beyond stimulus and response 3 classes • Gastropod (snails and slugs), • Cephalopod (squid octopus cuttlefish and chambered nautilus), • Bivalve (oyster, clam, mussel, scallop)

    7. Mollusk images • Bivalves Gastropods Cephalopods

    8. Invertebrate- Arthropod • jointed legs, exoskeleton, body segments (head, thorax, and abdomen), metamorphosis (complete or incomplete) 4 classes: Insect -6 legs (ant, grasshopper, beetle, bee, wasp) Arachnid -8 legs (spider, tick, horseshoe crab), Crustacean -10 legs (shrimp, lobster, barnacles, crayfish) Myrapods -many legs, centipede and millipedes

    9. Arthropod images

    10. Invertebrate- Echinoderm Characteristics: spiny skin, complex regeneration capacity, found only in marine environments, radial symmetry, Examples: Sea urchin, Sand dollar, Starfish, Sea cucumber

    11. Vertebrates- Chordata Chordate notachord, complex body systems, sexual reproduction (internal or external fertilization) 5 classes: Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

    12. Fish • Fish, moist skin covered in scales, gills to breathe, 2 chambered heart, cold blooded, 3 types: 1. bony ex Trout, Salmon, Bass, Catfish, Grouper, Tarpon. 2. jawless, ex. Lamprey and tunicates 3. cartilaginous ex. Sharks and Rays

    13. Fish images

    14. Amphibian • Amphibian, cold blooded, 3 chambered heart, born in water, develop lungs, smooth moist skin, ex. salamander, newts, frogs, and toads (only dry skin)

    15. Reptile • Reptile, dry leathery skin with scales, cold blooded, 3 chambered heart, amniote/terrestrial eggs, ex. Lizards, snakes, turtles, alligator, crocodile

    16. Birds • Bird, warm blooded, 4 chambered heart, hollow bones, body with feathers

    17. Mammal • Mammal, warm blooded, 4 chambered heart, milk producers, body with hair/fur • Placental (live birth), Marsupial (pouch) ex. Kangaroo, and Monotremes (egg) ex Platypus

    18. Animal Behaviors Innate: • Instincts- complex pattern of innate behaviors, reflexes, fight or flight, courtships, species recognition (language, song, flashes of pattern/light) • Territory- physical space needed for breeding, feeding, and shelter, organisms can expend a lot of energy defending territory some will fight to the death. • Migration- instinctive seasonal movement, response to a changing environment, includes hibernation (cold) and estivation (dry and hot)

    19. Behaviors cont’d Learned: • Habituation- animal repeats a successful behavior, and does not repeat an unsuccessful behavior, birds learn which moths are poisonous by color and avoid eating them after becoming ill or getting a bad taste. Deer return to the same grazing field when successful. • Imprinting – salmon and turtles return to same stream or beach to lay eggs in which they hatched, the environment left an imprint or memory

    20. Adaptations for Defense: • Mechanical- physical structures • Chemical- stinging sensations, poisons, bad taste, paralysis • Camouflage- color or pattern that blend into environment • Disruptive- ex zebra • Cryptic- ex chameleon and squid • Countershading- ex Fish have light belly and dark back