STUDY OF THE PROTECTION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF PROTECTED NATURAL AREA SINJAJEVINA
REASONS OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION Exceptional natural values • The most extensive Montenegrin mountain with an area of over 450 km²; • The largest limestone plateau in Montenegro with an average height of about 1600 m; • With Durmitor, it represents the largest morphological unit of northwestern Montenegro; • Over six peaks above 2000 m, it can also be classified as high mountains of Montenegro: BabjiZub (2277 m), VranovaGlava (2215 m), JablanovVrh (2203 m), Gradište (2174 m), Sto (2172 m). Savina beam (2101 m), VelikiPećarac (2042 m), VelikiStarac (2022 m), Babinvrh (2013 m), etc .; • Present mountain lakes - Zabojsko, which with its immediate surroundings enters the borders of Durmitor National Park, then Zminičko, Riblje and Vražje Lake, which are located on the border between Sinjajevina and Durmitor;
REASONS OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION • Richesof plant, animal and fungal species; • Areas of Babji zub and Gradište are identified as EMERALD areas (with 7 habitat types and 22 species from the Bern Convention); • Also, the area of Babjizub and Gradištehas been identified as an IMPORTANT PLANT AREAS - over 700 taxa (species and subspecies) of vascular plants, of wich 16 significant flora species and 8 significant habitat types according to international and national criteria for identifying IPAs are identified; • The Assembly of the Municipality of Kolašin on June 6, 2009 adopted a decision on the adoption of the initiative of the NGO "Natura" and the Botanical Garden Dulovina - Kolašin for the designation of the mountain peak Torna (Babjizub) and Gradište for the Natural Monument (act no. 01-1794, of 01 06/06/2009);
REASONS OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION • The Sinjajevina area is located on the route of the large regional Dinaric Arc corridor (the Southeast Dinaric Mountains bio-corridor extending from the Alps to the Prokletije and Sarp-Pindor massifs, while on the eastern and southern borders it rests on the national bio-corridor established in the direction Orijen - PustiLisac - Maganik - Sinjajevina - Kovren) in which to link (planned and existing) protected natural resources (Spatial Plan of Montenegro until 2020) • The Spatial Plan of Montenegro until 2020 identifies the area of Sinjajevina as an area that needs to be protected under the category Regional Park.
REASONS OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PROTECTED AREAS IN SINJAJEVINA • Durmitor National Park - part of the canyon valley of the Tara Rivers and the Bistrica River, and Zabojsko Lake with immediate surroundings, and part of the Dobrilovina (territory of Zabljak and Mojkovac municipalities).Localities of „Crna poda“ and the Zabojsko Lake area with its immediate surroundings are within protection zone I; • The Tara River and its canyon valley, from its source to its mouth, is included in the network of world biosphere reserves (M&B Program, M&B, UNESCO), with a total area of 32,000 ha;
REASONS OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE OF PROPOSED PROTECTED AREA EMERAL area: Babji zub and Gradište areas (total area 5709 ha) IPA area: Babji zub - meets two IPA criteria: A and C (total area 4378 ha) Elevation in m: 1300-2277
STUDY OF THE PROTECTION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF PROTECTED NATURAL AREA SINJAJEVINA • Name of project: „STUDY OF THE PROTECTION AND ESTABLISHMENT OF PROTECTED NATURAL AREA SINJAJEVINA “. • Funding: through the project: "Sinjajevina", for the realization of which the municipality of Mojkovac received funding from the Delegation of the European Union to Montenegro through the Inter-Municipal Development Grant Program. The Sinjajevina project is implemented by the municipality of Mojkovac in partnership with the municipalities of Kolašin, Žabljak, Šavnik and Danilovgrad; • AGENCIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION according to the Nature Protection Act, Art. 56, implements the preparation of the Protection Study; • The Agency has submitted the tender no. 01 D - 1782/2 of 20 July 2015 on the design of the Protection Study.
ACTIVITIES IN THE PROJECT Article 56, paragraph 5 of the Law on Nature Protection stipulates that the Study on Protection shall determine in particular: “A description of the natural, created and spinning features of the natural good; characteristics or values of the site; the current state of resources with an assessment of their valuation; assessment of the condition of the area; an opinion regarding the protection of the natural good; proposal to classify the natural property by importance; proposal of the category and regime of protection (protection zone); cartographic representation with delineated borders, that is, with a location code based on the real estate cadaster data; the concept of protection, promotion, sustainable development, how to manage the area; the consequences of adopting the act of proclamation, in particular with regard to property rights and economic activities involved, as well as the possible sources of funds needed for the implementation of the act on the proclamation of a protected natural property and other elements of importance for the protection of the natural property. "
PROJECT REALIZATION • A team of experts was formed within the Agency to conduct research on specific components of biodiversity, then analyze the current state of resources with an assessment of their valorisation by reviewing spatial planning documentation and conducting field research; • 8 external project associates were hired: experts on certain missing components of biodiversity (flora, habitats, bryophytes, mammals), landscape values (karateisation of landscapes), cultural heritage, forestry area (two researchers), GIS expert and surveyor; • Valuation of components of biodiversity, cultural heritage and landscape values in accordance with national and international standards accepted by Montenegro by ratification of numerous conventions and documents; • GIS mapping of the studied components of biodiversity (species of flora, fauna and fungi) significant from the international and / or national aspect, landscape values, and cultural heritage - the basis for defining the concept of protection, was done.
PROJECT RESULTS • About 1300 species and subspecies of vascular plants present; • 56 species of vascular flora do not exceed from the borders of the Balkan Peninsula, 40 species have national conservation status, 18 are listed at the CITES Convention, while two taxa are found under the Habitat Directive and one at the Berne Convention; • 10 types of internationally significant habitats listed on the EU Habitats Directive 92/43 / EEC; • 119 species of mosses, three species are protected by law in Montenegro due to their threat, Buxbaumia viridis is on the Annexes to the Berne Convention and the Habitat Directive; • 109 species of fungi, 11 species significantly nationally and / or internationally, five species are protected by law in Montenegro (strictly protected species); eight species are on the Preliminary Red List of Macromycetes of Montenegro; three species are on the Red List of Endangered Fungi of Europe;
PROJECT RESULTS • 43 species of mammals in Sinjajevina, 15 species protected by law in Montenegro (strictly protected species), 24 species present in the annexes of the Berne Convention, 16 species in the annexes of the Habitat Directive, 3 species in the CITES Convention annexes, and 14 species of bats present on Eurobats -in; • There are seven significant routes (corridors) that serve as corridors for large mammals, or as communication routes between different parts of Sinjajevina and Sinjajevina with Durmitor, Morača Mountains and Bjelasica; • 85 bird species have been conserved, however, it is likely that another 77 species can be recorded on the mountain; • Out of the stated number of ascertained and expected bird species (161 species in total), 141 species are protected by national law (strictly protected species), 15 species are protected by hunting, while 77 species have certain international protection status - they are on the EU Birds Directive annexes (BD );
PROJECT RESULTS • 19 species of herpetofauna - 7 species of amphibians and 12 species of reptiles. All ascertained species are protected by national law, appearing in the Appendices of the Bonn, Bern and / or CITES Convention and / or in the IUCN Regional List; • The areas of Zaboj, Zminic, Devil's and Fish Lake are significant for herpetofauna as well as ponds of either natural or anthropogenic nature: Katun Potrk (2 ponds); pond Sadarnik (Tušina village); Ckara Mountain Lodge (2 puddles); Rabrenov to (3 puddles); Little Greek Lake; The Great Lake of Greco; Savina water of that river: Štitarica and Bukovica; • 70 species of entomofauna, of which 7 species have some protection status at national and / or international level; • 46 snail species and 2 shellfish species, three snail species enjoy national protection (strictly protected species), etc.
PROJECT RESULTS From the aspect of protection, plant species are especially distinguished: • Gentianalutea subsp. symphyandra,due to the decreasing number of subpopulations in Montenegro and their size; • Daphne malyana,because the species of small areal, the number of subpopulations in Montenegro is reduced due to anthropogenic influence, the known small number of subpopulations with a small number of individuals; • Gentianellalaevicalyx,because it is a Montenegrin endemic and does not have a large number of subpopulations; • Eryngiumalpinum, a species from Annex II of the Habitats Directive 92/43 / EEC, which inhabits rocky pastures and open shrubs, in the height range of about 1500 to 2000 m above sea level. A significant number of localities have been recorded in Montenegro. There is a large population at the site of DevojackaVoda (southeastern slopes of Babi Zub), which is rated as one of the top 5 in Montenegro, which is why the site was designated as IPA (Important Plant Area) etc.
PROJECT RESULTS There are 10 habitats recorded in the Sinajevina region fromthe EU Habitat Directive 92/43 / EEC: • 3240 Alpine rivers and their ligneous vegetation with Salix elaeagnos • 6170 Alpine and subalpine calcareous grassland • 6430 Hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities of plains and of the montane to alpine levels • 8120 Calcareous and calcshist screes of the montane to alpine levels (Thlaspietea rotundifolii) • 8210 Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophyticvegetation • 95A0 High Oromediterranean pine forests • 91E0 Alluvial forests with Alnusglutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnionincanae, Salicionalbae) • 91R0 Dinaric dolomite Scots pine forests (Genisto januensis-Pinetum) • 91W0 Moesian beech forest • 9410 AcidophilousPicea forests of the montane to alpine level (Vaccinio-Piceetea)
Internationally and / or nationally s important species of fauna of molusca
Significant (important) corridors of large mammals 1. Tušina River Valley, Somina, Potoci, SkoćanskiPotok, KatunPotrk, Vratlo Pass, Lipovo Valley (valleys of Ropušica and Plašnica rivers); 2. Miocka, the village of Svrke, Svrčki Bare, Skočanski brook, KrnjaJela; 3. Lipovo Valley, ŽuričkiPotok, Savino ždrijelo, SavaVoda, Ždrijelo, Moračka Bistrica, Lower Ropušica Stream; 4. SavinaVoda, Štitaričkikatun - Studenca, Ždrijelo, Valley of Štitarička River; 5. The valley of the Tušina River, Timar, puddles between the Pyramid and BabinVrh, StaračkoPolje, Otmičivac, KatunPlaninica, Ravnjak; 6. Tara Canyon, Luka Perovića, Gomile, Pašno Polje, Zminjičko Lake.
LANDSCAPE VALUES • The geographical area of Sinjajevina belongs to the landscape unit Durmitor and Sinjajevina, which by many characteristics is one of the most typical and complex areas of the Dinarides; • According to the division of regions into regions, the investigated area of Sinjajevina belongs to the following regions: Areas of the canyons and plateaus of the central region and Areas of mountains and valleys of the northern region; • In the area of Sinjajevina, the following types and areas of character of the area are distinguished: type 1 - Highland ridge area; type 2 - Mountain area (areas of character of the area: area of Šaranaca, area of Štitarica, area of Bukovica and Uskoka); type 3 - Surface area; type 4 - Mountain rivers area (areas of character of the area: the Tara canyon with the Bistrica valley, the Plašnica river valley, the Bukovica and Tušina river valleys)
Characterization of landscapes Appetizer character types and areas
PROJECT RESULTS - CULTURAL HERITAGE • The 18 cultural sites and monuments with the status of cultural property are located within the proposed boundaries of the study area: Novica Cerović House, Memorial plaque and Tome Žugić House, Memorial plaque commemorating the fighting in July 1941, Memorial fountain with plaque in Timar. Memorial plaque in Podbišće, Partisan cemetery in Podbišće, Tomica Corović building, etc.); • 17 finds beyond the stated limit; • Immovable Cultural Property The stećci - medieval tombstones in Žugića Bare (territory of Žabljak municipality) were granted UNESCO World Heritage status in July 2016; • Other significant cultural assets such as Dobrilovina Monastery, Podmalinsko Monastery, House of Novica Cerović , etc.
Stećak tombstones, medieval tombstones, Bare Žugića (World Heritage Site)
ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT MUNICIPALITY: Kolašin, Mojkovac, Žabljak, Šavnk and Danilovgrad (traditionally used bjelopavlić Katuns,that territorially belong to the municipality of Mojkovac for uplifting - grazing) Number of Cadastral Municipalities: 31 (Kolašin 12, Mojkovac 8, Šavnik 6, Žabljak 5) According to Monstat in 2011. a total of 4678 inhabitants (mostly older population) were registered and in 1961. there were a total of 8521 inhabitants. The most significant economic activities registered in the field of research: • agriculture (animal husbandry, collection of medicinal plants and lichens, crop and vegetable production, beekeeping); • use of forests; • hunting; • tourism.
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES CATTLE BREEDING • Sinajevina is a true pasture-cattle mountain with nomadic, seasonal character of livestock. • An area of 120,000 ha of pastureland that can feed up to 200,000 sheep.
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Total number of cattle in Sinjajevina recorded in the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Montenegro (Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Montenegro, 2015)
Authentic traditional puff cheese produced at Sinjajevina- Kolašin puff cheese. Farmers Association from Kolasin and Mojkovac has applied for the origin label for Kolasin puff cheese.
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES FORESTRY There are 11 forest management units (areas)in the Sinjajevina Research Area: • Jezerska gora • Štitarica • Vučje • Sinjajevina – Semolj • Bijela – Vojnik • Bukovica • Donji Šaranci • Gornji Šaranci • Trebaljevske šume • Donjomoračke šume i • Gornjomoračke šume
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Forest management units and their purpose
MAIN DEVELOPMENT RULES DEFINED IN SPATIAL PLANNING DOCUMENTATION • intensification of agriculture, especially animal husbandry, which should be the main direction of development of this area, where larger farms would be the basis for this activity. In areas with smaller pastures, the development of small farms should be supported; • Consolidation of forest complexes and afforestation aiming at forest protection should be the main direction of development in the field of forestry. Regardless of the importance of timber resources, afforestation and improvement of degraded forests is essential, both in terms of reproduction and in terms of protection against erosion and landslides; • nature conservation through the preservation of an ecological corridor (Corridor of the southeastern Dinarides in Montenegro), which includes the zones of Durmitor National Park, Biogradska Gora National Park, Prokletije National Park and Regional parks Ljubišnja, Sinjajevina with Šaranci, Komovi and Visitor with Zeletin; • development of scientific-educational and excursion tourism, then mountain tourism (eco-, ethno- and agritourism; winter skiing - Nordic skiing; summer recreational, mountain-biking, horse-riding, etc.), which must be controlled and organized; • use of small streams for mini hydro power plants in accordance with the Energy Development Strategy.
ASSESSMENT OF THE RESEARCH AREA - PRESSURES The assessment of the impact of recorded activities and pressures on the subject areas was modeled: A - high impact, B - medium impact, C - low impact. Recorded activities and pressures on the subject area: • Stagnation or abandonment of livestock farming as an important agricultural activity - B • Area depopulation and population aging - B • Excessive and inadequate forest exploitation - B • Poaching, hunting and fishing in illicit ways - A, B • Alien invasive species - B • Lake Eutrophication - A • Fires - B • Asphalt base along the river Štitarica - B • Tourism - B • Collection of Indigenous Species for Scientific, Collectible or Other Purposes - B • Construction of mini hydro power plants - B
GENERAL CONDITIONS IMPORTANT FOR FUTURE PROTECTED AREA FIELD BENEFITS, POTENTIALS • Exceptional natural values; • Development of agriculture especially livestock breeding; • Production of healthy food and • Tourism development - all its forms suitable for the area of Sinjajevina. WEAKNESSES OF THE AREA Stagnation of agricultural activity, depopulation of the population, inadequate transport infrastructure, waterlessness in most of Sinjajevina, problems in electricity supply especially in the Katunarea(nomadic settlements).
PROPOSED CONCEPT OF PROTECTION AIMS OF PROTECTION: • Conservation of the species of flora, fauna and fungi present in this area which are significant from the international and / or national aspects of protection; • Conservation of natural habitat types that are significant in terms of protection in accordance with national and / or international standards; • The preservation of significant corridors or communication routes for large mammal species between different parts of Sinjajevina and Sinjajevina with Durmitor, Morača Mountains and Bjelasica; • Conservation of an important ecological corridor of protected areas (National park "Durmitor" – Regional park "Sinjajevina" – National park "Biogradskagora"); • Conservation of the large regional Dinaric Arc bio-corridor - the bio-corridor of the Southeast Dinaric Mountains; • The preservation of significant landscape values that overlap with natural values; • and the preservation of cultural heritage.
PROPOSED CONCEPT OF PROTECTION • Protected Area - REGIONAL PARK (Article 40 of the Law); • Category II - protected natural area of great importance (Article 51 of the Law); • Protected natural area of national importance (Article 35 of the Law); • Management category V by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
WAY TO ESTABLISH THE BORDER OF PROTECTED AREA The following bases were used to determine the boundary of a protected area as well as to determine the boundaries of different protection regimes: • distribution of significant biodiversity components (flora, fungi, fauna) - cartographic appendix (maps 1-7 in Attached of the Study); • information on significant corridors for mammalian species - cartographic appendix (folder 8); • cultural heritage data - cartographic appendix (folders 9 and 10); • date about landscape (Figure 35); • data on forest management units - Annex I; • border of Durmitor NP within the Sinjajevina area (Figures 60 and 61) • topographic map of the study area 1: 25000; • Google Earth Service; • digital cadastral records.
View all available digital cadastral data as well as the boundaries of proposed protected area „Regional Park Sinjajevina“
Total area of the proposed regional park: 63,863.63 ha AREA OF THE REGIONAL PARK IN MUNICIPALITIES (ha) • MOJKOVAC: 15687.17 ha • KOLAŠIN: 18006.24 ha • ŽABLJAK: 16069.93 ha • ŠAVNIK: 14100.34 ha
Protection regime within Protected Area - Zoning (Protection Zones) Article 54 of the Law on Nature Protection defines the following protection regimes: • Protection regime of 1st degree - strict protection is implemented on the protected natural property or its part with slightly changed habitats of extremely functional - ecological importance, which enable natural biological processes, preservation of the integrity of the habitat and living communities, including extremely valuable cultural assets. • Degree of protection level II - active protection is carried out on a protected natural property in which the properties of natural habitats are partially altered but not to the level that they threaten their functional-ecological significance, including valuable landscapes and objects of geo-heritage. • Stage III protection regime - sustainable use is carried out on a protected natural property or part thereof with partially altered and / or altered habitat features that enable functional-ecological connectivity and integrity of the protected natural property. • Seat belt