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Approaches to Systems Development. Chapter 8 . Outline. Introduction Systems Analyst Ch 8 - Approaches to System Development SDLC Phases & Core Processes Approaches: Predictive & Adaptive Methodology Software Construction & Modeling Approaches Structured A&D Object-oriented

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outline
Outline
  • Introduction
    • Systems Analyst
  • Ch 8 - Approaches to System Development
    • SDLC
      • Phases & Core Processes
      • Approaches: Predictive & Adaptive
    • Methodology
    • Software Construction & Modeling Approaches
      • Structured A&D
      • Object-oriented
    • Agile Development
systems analyst
Systems Analyst
  • Organizational role most responsible for analysis and design of information systems.
    • Translates a _________ __________ into an ___________ ___________ ___________ .
    • Job Titles
      • vary by organization; read the job description
        • Systems Analyst
        • Business Analyst (client-facing)
systems analyst1
Systems Analyst

…more of a business problem solver than a technical programmer

systems development project
Systems Development Project
  • Is a planned undertaking
  • Has fixed beginning and end
  • Produces desired result or product
  • Varies in size
sdlc systems development life cycle
SDLC: Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Provides overall framework for managing systems development process
    • All projects use some variation of SDLC

Ch 9

Ch 9

Ch 2-5

Ch 7,10-12

Ch 13

Ch 13

2 approaches to the sdlc
2 Approaches to the SDLC

Predictive SDLC

Adaptive SDLC

  • Waterfall Model
  • Modified Waterfall
  • Spiral Model
  • Incremental Development
  • Assumptions
  • can be planned in advance
  • system can be developed according to the plan
  • Assumptions
  • Iterative
  • Must be flexible & adapt
predictive approaches
Predictive Approaches

Waterfall

  • One phase begins when another completes; Specifications are frozen

ProjectInitiation

ProjectInitiation

Problems

  • System requirements “locked in”
  • Limited user involvement
  • Too much focus on milestone deadlines

Planning

Planning

Analysis

Analysis

Design

Design

Implementation

Implementation

Deployment

Deployment

Modified Waterfall

  • Overlapping phases
  • Can go backwards

Support

Support

adaptive approaches spiral model
Adaptive Approaches: Spiral Model
  • An iterative approach
  • Spiral until project completion
    • Then, deployed!
  • Project Management:
    • managed differently than a waterfall approach
adaptive approaches incremental development
Adaptive Approaches: Incremental Development
  • Also, an iterative approach
    • BUT…
      • System is built in small increments; it is "grown"
        • As an iteration is completed it is integrated to the whole
        • Partially deployed in steps
    • Advantage
      • some functionality gets into the user's hands much earlier
methodology
Methodology
  • A comprehensive guideline to follow for completing every SDLC activity
  • Abstraction used
  • to separate out
  • aspect
  • Software to
  • create models
  • or other project
  • components

Guidelines

or instructions

2 approaches to software construction modeling
2 Approaches to Software Construction & Modeling
  • Structured Approach
    • analysis, design & programming
  • Object-oriented Approach
    • analysis, design & programming
software construction modeling structured approach
Software Construction & Modeling:Structured Approach

Structured

Analysis

Structured

Design

Structured

Programming

  • Define processing requirements
  • Define data requirements
  • Define inputsand outputs
  • Define how functions work together to accomplish tasks
  • Determines set of programs
  • Purpose of each
  • Organization of programs
  • Main principles:
  • Loosely coupled
  • Highly cohesive
  • Each program has one beginning & one ending
  • Uses 3 constructs:
    • Sequence
    • Decision
    • Repetition
  • Improvements:
    • program quality
    • easier to maintain
software construction modeling object oriented approach
Software Construction & Modeling:Object-Oriented Approach

Views information system as a collection of interacting objects that work together to accomplish tasks

  • OOA, OOD, OOP
  • OO languages
    • C++, Java, C#
  • Benefits
    • Reuse!
agile development
Agile Development
  • A guiding philosophy and set of guidelines for :
    • developing information systems in an unknown rapidly changing environment
    • Complements Adaptive SDLCs & Methodologies
      • makes sure developers are fast to respond to changes

“Manifesto for Agile Development”  agilemanifesto.org

      • Value responding to change over following a plan
      • Value individuals and interactionsover processes and tools
      • Value working software over comprehensive documentation
      • Value customer collaboration over contract negotiation