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PETROLEUM SECTOR- An over view. PowerPoint Presentation
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PETROLEUM SECTOR- An over view.

PETROLEUM SECTOR- An over view.

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PETROLEUM SECTOR- An over view.

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  1. PETROLEUM SECTOR- An over view. CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  2. CHAPTER INDEX • OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRY • EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION(E & P)-UPSTREAM • REFINING-DOWNSTREAM • MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION-DOWNSRTEAM • PRICING ASPECTS • ALTERNATIVE FUELS • CONSERVATION OF PRODUCTS • OIL AND GAS SECURITY-STRATEGIC STORAGE/ RESERVES • POLLUTION CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  3. OVERVIEW PLAYS A VITAL ROLE IN THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OCCUPIES A MAJOR SHARE IN TOTAL ENERGY MIX- 38 %. ENERGY MIX – OIL, GAS, COAL, HYDROELECTRIC, NUCLEAR, AND RENEWABLE (SOLAR, WIND AND BIOMASS). CONSUMPTION DURING 09-10 – 137.808 MMT CONSUMPTION DURING 10-11 – 141.785 MMT CRUDE OIL / GAS – MAJOR INPUT FOR PETROLEUM PRODUCTS / PETRO CHEMICALS CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  4. OVERVIEW-Contd… CONSIST OF TWO MAJOR ACTIVITIES – UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM UPSTREAM – EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION OF CRUDE OIL AND GAS DOWNSTREAM – REFINING OF CRUDE OIL INTO VARIOUS PRODUCTS AND MARKETING OF THESE PRODUCTS 80% OF CRUDE OIL DEMAND MET THROUGH IMPORTS AND BALANCE 20% BY INDIGENOUS PRODUCTION TOTAL SALES VALUE 09-10 - 885064 CRORES TOTAL SALES VALUE 10-11 - 1000024 CRORES CONTRIBUTION TO GOVT. REVENUE -09-10- 183861 CRORES CONTRIBUTION TO GOVT. REVENUE -10-11- 225494 CRORES. CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  5. OVERVIEW-Contd…. CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS STATE TAXES -09-10- 39.21 % CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS CENTRAL TAXES -09-10– 60.79 % CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS STATE TAXES -10-11 – 39.47 % CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS CENTRAL TAXES -10-11– 60.53 % DOMINATED BY PUBLIC SECTOR PRICING OF THE PRODUCTS UNDER APM SCENARIO UPTO 31.03.2002 FOR MS,HSD,SKO(D) & LPG(D) PRICING OF THE PRODUCTS UNDER MDPM SCENARIO FROM 01.04.2002 FOR MS,HSD,SKO(D) & LPG(D) CROSS SUBSIDIZATION OF PRODUCT CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  6. OVERVIEW • UNDER RECOVERIES- 09-10- ON SALE OF PETROL 5151 CR, DIESEL 9279 CR, SKO(PDS) 17364 CR, LPG(D) 14257 CR TOTAL -46051 CR • UNDER RECOVERIES- 10-11- ON SALE OF PETROL 2227 CR, DIESEL 34706 CR, SKO(PDS) 21772 CR, LPG(D) 19485 CR TOTAL -78190 CR • SUBSIDY ON LPG(DOM) PER CYLINDER SOLD FOR FY 09-10 – U/R TO OIL Cos.- 178.13, FISCAL BUDGET SUBSIDY- 22.58. TOTAL -200.71. • SUBSIDY ON LPG(DOM) PER CYLINDER SOLD FOR FY 10-11 – U/R TO OIL Cos.- 249.94, FISCAL BUDGET SUBSIDY- 22.58. TOTAL -272.52. • SUBSIDY ON SKO(PDS) PER LTR SOLD FOR FY 09-10 – U/R TO OIL Cos.- 14.85, FISCAL BUDGET SUBSIDY- 0.82. TOTAL -15.67. • SUBSIDY ON SKO(PDS) PER LTR SOLD FOR FY 10-11 – U/R TO OIL Cos.- 17.39, FISCAL BUDGET SUBSIDY- 0.82. TOTAL -18.21. CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  7. PRICE COMPARISON WITH NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES – JULY’11- PER LTR CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  8. Comparison of prices with Developed countries.- /Ltr as on Jun’2010 CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  9. * Majority stake acquired by IOCL ** Majority stake acquired by BPCL *** Majority stake acquired by ONGC @ Exclusive Marketing Company $ Merged with IOCL # Fully merged with BPCL CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  10. EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION-UPSTREAM • REFERS TO EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OF CRUDE OIL AND GAS • E&P- BY UNDERTAKING GEOLOGICAL / GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS ON WATER AND LAND • CRUDE OIL / GAS PRODUCED ON OFF / ON SHORE AREAS • OFF SHORE REFERS TO E&P UNDER WATER • ON SHORE REFERS TO E&P ON LAND • ONLY 20% OF TOTAL DEMAND MET THRU INDIGENOUS PRODUCTION CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  11. OFF SHORE DRILLING CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  12. ON SHORE DRILLING CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  13. UPSTREAM –contd. • SULPHUR CONTENT DETERMINES THE TYPE OF CRUDE • TYPE OF CRUDE- SWEET, SOUR AND HEAVY • TRANSPORTATION TO REFINERIES BY –COASTAL TANKERS, BARGES,PIPELINES,RAILWAGON, TANK LORRY • TOTAL COST INCURRED FOR E&P IS THE COST OF THE CRUDE • PROFIT = REALIZABLE VALUE OF CRUDE MINUS COST OF CRUDE • Indigenous Crude production-09-10- 33.69 MMT • Indigenous Crude production-10-11- 37.712 MMT • Indigenous Natural Gas production-09-10- 47.50 BCM • Indigenous Natural gas production -10-11- 52.22 BCM • Imported Crude 09-10 – 159.259 MMT • Imported Crude 10-11 - 163.594 MMT CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  14. PROJECTED PRODUCTION OF CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL GAS-DURING THE ELEVENTH PLAN -2007-12 PRODUCTION OF Crude oil (MMT) COMPANY 07-08 08-09 09-10 10-11 11-12 TOTAL ONGC 27.16 28.00 29.00 28.53 27.37 140.06 OIL 3.50 3.55 3.73 3.91 4.30 18.99 JOINT VENT./ PRIVATE Cos. 10.57 10.78 9.76 8.75 7.85 47.71 TOTAL 41.23 42.33 42.49 41.19 39.52 206.76 CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  15. REFINING-DOWNSTREAM REFINING PRODUCTION OF FINISHED PRODUCTS FROM CRUDE OIL HAVING DIFFERENT BOILING POINTS BY A PROCESS OF FRACTIONATING/DISTILLATION TO MEET OISD / EXPLOSSIVE / POLLUTION CONTROL / QUALITY CONTROL NORMS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE TYPE OF CRUDE USED DETERMINES INFRASRTUCTURE FOR REFINERY/ PRODUCTION OF FINISHED PRODUCT PRODUCT TYPE – LIGHT, MIDDLE AND HEAVY DISTILLATES CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  16. REFINING-DOWNSTREAM REFINING – (contd....) LIGHT DISTILLATES – LPG,NAPTHA,PETROL ETC MIDDLE DISTILLATES –HSD,SKO,ATF,LDO ETC HEAVY DISTILLATES- LUBES,LSHS/FO, LUBE BASE OIL, BITUMEN,COKE ETC. CONSUMPTION FY 09-10– LIGHT DISTILLATES -26.18%,MIDDLE-51.16% AND HEAVY-22.66% CONSUMPTION FY 10-11– LIGHT DISTILLATES -27.66%,MIDDLE-52.51 % AND HEAVY-19.83% CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  17. CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  18. CA.M Ravi Balasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  19. REFINING-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… PETROLEUM PRODUCTS AND THEIR USAGE Liquefied Petroleum gas is used as Domestic fuel. Also for Industrial application where technically essential. Now permitted as Auto fuel. Naphtha/NGL is used as Feedstock/Fuel in Fertilizer units, feedstock for petrochemical sector and fuel for Power plants. Gasoline or Petrol is used as a fuel in motor cars, scooters, motor cycles, and other light vehicles. Kerosene oil is used as household oil (cooking/lighting). A special grade of kerosene oil known as Aviation Turbine fuel used as fuel in aero planes. CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  20. REFINING-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… PETROLEUM PRODUCTS AND THEIR USAGE (Contd..) e.Diesel oil (HSD) is used as a fuel for transport sector (Railways/Road),agriculture(tractors,pumpsets,threshers etc.) and Captive power generation. f. LDO (Light Diesel oil) used as fuel for agricultural pump sets, small industrial units, start up fuel for Power generation. g.Furnace oil/LSHS is used as Secondary fuel for Thermal Power Plants, Fuel/feedstock for fertilizer plants. Industrial units. CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  21. REFINING-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… PETROLEUM PRODUCTS AND THEIR USAGE (Contd..) h.Lubricating Oil is used as lubrication for Automotive/Industrial application. i.Paraffin Wax is used for making candles,vaseline,Ointments and wax paper. j.Mineral Turpentine Oil used as solvent for textile printing, dry cleaning, polish and insecticides CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  22. REFINING-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… PETROLEUM PRODUCTS AND THEIR USAGE (Contd..) k.Grease is a semisolid product of dispersion of thickening agent in liquid lubricant. l.Asphalt/Bitumen is a black sticky substance used for making road surfaces and the final residue of petroleum m.Bezene/Toluene/LABFS/CBFS used Feedstock for value added products. CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  23. Oil Refinery at Dusk CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  24. PROCESS OF REFINING CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  25. REFINING-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… PRODUCT TRANSPORTATION BY : COASTAL TANKER, BARGES, PIPELINES,RAIL WAGON AND TANK TRUCK REFINING CAPACITY- 1-4-10 : PSU (IOC,BPC,HPC,ONGC) -112.90 MMT PRIVATE(RELIANCE/ESSAR)-72.50 MMT REFINING CAPACITY- 1-4-11 : PSU (IOC,BPC,HPC,ONGC) -122.90 MMT PRIVATE(RELIANCE/ESSAR)-70.50 MMT NO. OF REFINERIES :- PSU 18, PRIVATE-3 CRUDE PROCESSED FY -09-10- 186.562 MMT (PSU- 112.327, PRIVATE- 74.436) CRUDE PROCESSED FY -10-11-196.485 MMT (PSU- 115.109, PRIVATE- 81.376) CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  26. REFINING-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… REFINING COST : COST OF CRUDE OIL, CHEMICALS / CATALYST, CONSUMABLES, WATER AND POWER, SALARIES AND WAGES, OVERHEADS, REPAIRS AND MAINTENANCE, DEPRECIATION, INTEREST COST ON WORKING CAPITAL AND NORMAL PRODUCTION LOSS PROFIT – REFINERY TRANSFER / GATE PRICE OF FINISHED PRODUCT MINUS REFINING COST INCLUDING CRUDE COST CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  27. MARKRTING AND DISTRIBUTION-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… MARKETING MARKETING OF FINISHED PRODUCTS FROM PRODUCTION CENTRES (REFINERIES) TO CONSUMPTION CENTRES(INDIVIDUAL CUSTOMER/ INDUSTRIAL CONSUMER) CONSIST OF STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ( INSTALLATION / TERMINAL / TAP OFF / DEPOT), LPG BOTTLING PLANT, AIR FIELD STATION (AFS), LUBEOIL BLENDING PLANT(LOBP), RETAIL OUTLETS(RO), AND ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  28. CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  29. Oil Storage Facility CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  30. LPG BOTTLING PLANT CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  31. MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… INFRASTRUCTURE AT DISTRIBUTION CENTERS, LPG BOTTLING PLANT,LOBP,AFS,RO SHOULD CONFORM TO OISD, EXPLOSIVE, POLLUTION CONTROL AND QUALITY CONTROL NORMS PRODUCT TRANSPORTATION BY -COASTAL TANKERS, BARGES,PIPELINES,RAILWAGON, TANK TRUCK CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  32. MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… MARKET SHARE-09-10- PSU – 89.10%,PRIVATE-10.90% MARKET SHARE-10-11- PSU – 91.07%,PRIVATE-8.93% MARKETING COST- COST INCURRED FOR – STORAGE & DISTRIBUTION CENTERS , LPG BOTTLING PLANT , LOBP, AFS,RO’S AND ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES NET PROFIT = SALES PRICE OF PRODUCTS MINUS MARKETING COST (INCLUDING PURCHASE COST OF PRODUCTS) CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  33. MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… ix.Memorandum of Collaboration (MOC) between the oil companies for sharing product and facilities to optimize effective utilization of product and facilities x. Monthly industrial logistic plan meeting (ILP) for finalizing product movement and distribution pattern for ensuing month on the basis of refinery production, product availability, consumption and demand CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  34. MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… xi. Industry Coordination – Regional level coordinator (RLC) , State level coordinator (SLC) and District level coordinator (DLC) RLC- Developing an industry approach to any difficulties / problems encountered by the industry SLC- Reports to RLC. An intermediary between Industry and the State Government with regard to availability and distribution of products CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  35. MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… DLC- Report to SLC. To ensure coordination with district authority with regard to distribution of products in the district xii. Industry meeting for price fixation – To monitor / fixing prices of retail products (MS / HSD / PDS KEROSENE/LPG(D)) in respect of following Commissioning of new refinery Commissioning of new installation / terminal Commissioning of new pipelines Commissioning of new depot / tap off point Commissioning of new retail outlet Change in the RTKM of retail outlets Revision in freight charges Shifting of pricing points Changes / imposition of statutory levies CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  36. MARKETING AND DSTRIBUTION-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… xiii. Types of Market – “A” Class Market – Metros and other cities having population over 10 lacs as per 1981 census “B” Class Market – Cities having population between 2 lacs to 10 lacs as per 1981 census “C” Class Market – All other towns / cities not covered “A”, “B” and “E” markets excluding locations on National / State Highways “D” Class Market – RO’s on National / State Highways “E” Class Market – Remote areas not covered by National / State Highways and pockets of consumption having no Retail Outlet within 10 Km radius CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  37. MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… xiv. Types of Marketing Channels – Retail MS / HSD / Lubricants and Greases through Retail Outlets (RO’s) A site RO – Company owned facilities and company controlled or dealer controlled B site RO – Dealer owned facilities and dealer controlled Agency for Kerosene / LDO , Lubricants / Greases – Direct Consumer pumps for HSD Direct Customers for HSD , FO , LDO , LSHS , NAPTHA, LPG , BITUMEN, BASE OIL , LUBRICANT AND GREASES, ATF ETC CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  38. MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… QUALITY CONTROL(QC) – PRODUCT QUALITY AND SPECIFICATION SHOULD BE AS PER INDUSTRY QUALITY CONTROL MANUAL (IQCM) Responsibility of ensuring proper quality control is that of each marketing company To set up QC LABS having basic testing facilities as per IQCM at each storage and distribution point (Installation / Terminal , Tap Off point and Depots) To set up mobile QC LABS for checking quality of the product while in transit to Retail Outlet (RO’s) and also at Retail Outlets CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  39. MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… Quality and Quantity (Q & Q) –Concept followed by industry to ensure right quantity and right quality of the product to the customer at the RO’s MS / HSD control order 1990- For prevention of mal practice in supply and distribution Applicable to whole of India Mal practice includes adulteration, pilferage, stock variation and unauthorized sale Density of the product @ 150 C for MS / HSD at the receiving end (RO) should be with in + / - 0.0030 variation in the density @ 150 C at the supply location CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  40. MARKETING AND DISTRIBUTION-DOWNSTREAM –CONTD… MS / HSD control order 1990- (Contd..) In case variation in density is beyond the permissible limit the RO may be closed after further quality verification Variation in stocks beyond the permissible limit the RO will be liable to action under the control order There are norms for marketing force of the marketing company to do periodical inspections at the RO’s to ensure Q & Q CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  41. PRICING APM – (ADMINISTRATIVE PRICE MECHANISM) IT WAS INTRODUCED IN 1974 BASED ON “COST PLUS BASIS” PRINCIPLE CENTRAL GOVT. PLAYS KEY ROLE IN DETERMINING PRICES BY OPERATING INDUSTRY POOL ACCOUNTS POOL ACCOUNTS TO FACILITATE STABILITY OF PRICES IN VIEW OF FLUCTUATIONS IN CRUDE OIL IMPORTS FOR UPSTREAM – REIMBURSEMENT OF OPERATING COST PLUS 15% POST TAX RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED FOR INDIGENOUS CRUDE PRODUCTION CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  42. PRICING –contd... APM – (ADMINISTRATIVE PRICE MECHANISM)-Contd.. FOR DOWNSTREAM- REIMBURSEMENT OF OPERATING COST PLUS 12% POST TAX RETURN ON NET WORTH AND WEIGHTED COST OF BORROWINGS CROSS SUBSIDIZATION OF PRODUCTS – KEEPING PRICES OF THE PRODUCTS LIKE SKO AND LPG AT SUBSIDIZED PRICES AND KEEPING PRICES OF OTHER PRODUCT LIKE MS/HSD AND ATF AT HIGHER LEVEL CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  43. PRICING-CONTD.. MDPM – (MARKET DETERMINED PRICE MECHANISM) IT WAS INTRODUCED FOR REFINERIES ON 01.04.98 AND FOR MARKETING FROM 01.04.2002 BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE IMPORT PARITY PRICE (IPP)/TRADE Parity from 16/06/06 IPP – LANDED COST OF FINISHED PRODUCTS LIKE MS /HSD/ SKO/ LPG AT THE NEAREST PORT THOUGH IN PRINCIPLE IT IS MDPM , HOWEVER CENTRAL GOVT. HAS SAY IN DETERMINATION OF FINAL RETAIL SELLING PRICE(RSP) CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  44. PRICING-CONTD.. MDPM – (MARKET DETERMINED PRICE MECHANISM) E&P ACTIVITY AND REFINERIES ARE BENEFITED MARKETING ACTIVITY HAS BECOME LOSS MAKING DUE TO NON REVISION OF RSP IN LINE WITH THE IMPORT PARITY PRICE/Trade parity MARGIN OF THE COMPANIES FLUCTUATE BASED ON THE INTERNATIONAL OIL PRICES CROSS SUBSIDIZATION OF PRODUCTS – KEEPING PRICES OF THE PRODUCTS LIKE SKO AND LPG AT SUBSIDIZED PRICES AND KEEPING PRICES OF OTHER PRODUCT LIKE MS/HSD AND ATF AT HIGHER LEVEL CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  45. Thrust Areas under MDPM Productivity of Manpower/Machines Cost control Prudent investment decisions Keeping Stock losses at minimum Inventory control Receivables control No under recovery of statutory levies /freight Keeping MIS data up to date Close follow up of International Prices. Foreign Exchange Management CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  46. PRICING-CONTD.. MDPM – (MARKET DETERMINED PRICE MECHANISM) Elements of selling price of MS / HSD Ex. refinery gate price (IPP)-Import Parity Price/Trade parity Marketing cost / margin Siding & shunting charges at MI (Main Installation) Rail / Pipeline freight Siding & Shunting charges at Depot State Specific Cost Excise duty CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  47. PRICING-CONTD.. MDPM – (MARKET DETERMINED PRICE MECHANISM) Elements of selling price of MS / HSD (Cont’d) FDZ delivery charges @ `/ kl Delivery charges beyond FDZ @ ps /kl/km Toll taxes Sales tax as applicable Dealers commission Total Rounding off differential Final retail selling price CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  48. PRICING-CONTD.. MDPM – (MARKET DETERMINED PRICE MECHANISM) Elements of selling price of SKO Ex. Refinery gate price (IPP)-Import Parity Price/trade parity Marketing cost / margin Siding & shunting charges at MI (Main Installation) Rail / pipeline freight Siding & Shunting charges at Depot State Specific Cost Excise duty CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  49. PRICING-CONTD.. MDPM – (MARKET DETERMINED PRICE MECHANISM) Elements of selling price of SKO Toll taxes Sales tax as applicable Transportation costs Wholesalers commission Retailers commission Total Rounding off differential Final retail sellingprice. CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)

  50. PRICING-CONTD.. MDPM – (MARKET DETERMINED PRICE MECHANISM) Elements of selling price of other products Ex. Refinery gate price (IPP)-Import parity Price /Trade parity Marketing Cost /margin Siding & shunting charges at MI Rail / Pipeline freight CA.M RaviBalasubrahmanyam, DMA(ICA)