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  1. INFORMATION SECURITY MANAGEMENT Lecture 9: Protection Mechanisms You got to be careful if you don’t know where you’re going, because you might not get there. – Yogi Berra

  2. Physical Break-In Dumpster Diving Google, Newsgroups, Web sites Social Engineering Phishing: fake email Pharming: fake web pages WhoIs Database Domain Name Server Interrogations Registrant: Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052 US Domain name: MICROSOFT.COM Administrative Contact: Administrator, Domain One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052 US +1.4258828080 Technical Contact: Hostmaster, MSN One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052 US +1.4258828080 Registration Service Provider: DBMS VeriSign, 800-579-2848 x4 Please contact DBMS VeriSign for domain updates, DNS/Nameserver changes, and general domain support questions. Registrar of Record: TUCOWS, INC. Record last updated on 27-Aug-2006. Record expires on 03-May-2014. Record created on 02-May-1991. Domain servers in listed order: NS3.MSFT.NET NS1.MSFT.NET NS4.MSFT.NET NS2.MSFT.NET NS5.MSFT.NET Hacking NetworksPhase 1: Reconnaissance

  3. Hacking NetworksPhase 2: Scanning War Driving: Can I find a wireless network? War Dialing: Can I find a modem to connect to? Network Mapping: What IP addresses exist, and what ports are open on them? Vulnerability-Scanning Tools: What versions of software are implemented on devices?

  4. Passive Attacks Eavesdropping: Listen to packets from other parties = Sniffing Traffic Analysis: Learn about network from observing traffic patterns Footprinting: Test to determine software installed on system = Network Mapping

  5. Network Attacks: Sniffing (Eavesdropping) IP Address Spoofing Session Hijacking System Attacks: Buffer Overflow Password Cracking SQL Injection Web Protocol Abuse Denial of Service Trap Door Virus, Worm, Trojan horse, Hacking Networks:Phase 3: Gaining Access

  6. Denial of Service: Message did not make it; or service could not run Masquerading or Spoofing: The actual sender is not the claimed sender Message Modification: The message was modified in transmission Packet Replay: A past packet is transmitted again in order to gain access or otherwise cause damage Some Active Attacks

  7. Man-in-the-Middle Attack (2) Login (1) Login (4) Password (3) Password

  8. Hacking Networks:Phase 4: Exploit/Maintain Access Control system: system commands, log keystrokes, pswd Useful utility actually creates a backdoor. Backdoor Trojan Horse Replaces system executables: e.g. Login, ls, du User-Level Rootkit Bots Spyware/Adware Replaces OS kernel: e.g. process or file control to hide Kernel-Level Rootkit Slave forwards/performs commands; spreads, list email addrs, DOS attacks Spyware: Collect info: keystroke logger, collect credit card #s, AdWare: insert ads, filter search results

  9. Botnets Botnets: Bots Handler Attacker China Hungary Bots: Host illegal movies, music, pornography, criminal web sites, … Forward Spam for financial gain Zombies

  10. Distributed Denial of Service Zombies Handler Victim Attacker Russia Bulgaria United States Can barrage a victim server with requests, causing the network to fail to respond to anyone Zombies

  11. Introduction • Threats -> Vulnerabilities -> Risk ->Controls • Technicalcontrols • Must be combined with sound policy and education, training, and awareness efforts • Examples of technical security mechanisms

  12. Sphere of Protection Management of Information Security, 3rd ed. Source: Course Technology/Cengage Learning

  13. Access Controls • The four processes of access control • Identification • Authentication • Authorization • Accountability • A successful access control approach always incorporates all four of these elements

  14. Access Controls – Password Strength Table 10-1 Password power Source: Course Technology/Cengage Learning

  15. Acceptability of Biometrics • Note: Iris Scanning has experienced rapid growth in popularity and due to it’s acceptability, low cost, and effective security Google Offers New Alternative for Biometrics

  16. Firewalls • Any device that prevents a specific type of information from moving between two networks Types: • Packet Filtering • Application Level • Stateful Inspection Firewalls

  17. The Development of Firewalls • Packet filtering firewalls • Simple networking devices that filter packets by examining every incoming and outgoing packet header

  18. The Development of Firewalls • Packet filtering firewalls

  19. The Development of Firewalls • Application-level firewalls • Consists of dedicated computers kept separate from the first filtering router (edge router) • Commonly used in conjunction with a second or internal filtering router - or proxy server • Implemented for specific protocols

  20. The Development of Firewalls • Application-level firewalls

  21. The Development of Firewalls • Stateful inspection firewalls • Keeps track of each network connection established between internal and external systems using a state table • Can restrict incoming packets by allowing access only to packets that constitute responses to requests from internal hosts

  22. FirewallConfigurations terminal host Router Packet Filtering: Packet header is inspected Single packet attacks caught Very little overhead in firewall: very quick High volume filter firewall A A terminal host Stateful Inspection State retained in firewall memory Most multi-packet attacks caught More fields in packet header inspected Little overhead in firewall: quick firewall A A A

  23. FirewallConfigurations terminal host Application-Level Firewall Packet session terminated and recreated via a Proxy Server Packet header completely inspected Most or all of application inspected Highest overhead: slow & low volume firewall A B A B

  24. Firewall Architectures • Each firewall generation can be implemented in several architectural configurations • Common architectural implementations • Packet filtering routers • Screened-host firewalls • Dual-homed host firewalls • Screened-subnet firewalls

  25. Firewall Architectures:Packet filtering routers Most organizations with an Internet connection use some form of router between their internal networks and the external service provider

  26. Firewall Architectures:Screened-host firewall systems • Combine the packet filtering router with a separate, dedicated firewall such as an application proxy server

  27. Firewall Architectures:Dual-Homed host firewalls • The bastion host contains two network interfaces • One is connected to the external network • One is connected to the internal network

  28. Selecting the Right Firewall • Firewall Technology • Cost • Maintenance • Future Growth

  29. Managing Firewalls • Any firewall device must have its own configuration • Firewall Rules • Policy regarding firewall use

  30. Managing Firewalls (cont’d.) • Firewall best practices • All traffic from the trusted network allowed out • The firewall is never accessible directly from the public network • Email Policies

  31. Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPS) • The term intrusion detection/prevention system (IDPS) can be used to describe current anti-intrusion technologies • Like firewall systems, IDPSs require complex configurations to provide the level of detection and response desired

  32. Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (cont’d.) • IDPS technologies can respond to a detected threat by attempting to prevent it from succeeding • Different Response Techniques • IDS vs. IPS • Network or Host Based Protection

  33. IDPS – Host vs. Network

  34. Network IDS=NIDS Examines packets for attacks Can find worms, viruses, org-defined attacks Warns administrator of attack IPS=Packets are routed through IPS Host IDS=HIDS Examines actions or resources for attacks Recognize unusual or inappropriate behavior E.g., Detect modification or deletion of special files Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) Router IDS Firewall

  35. Signature-Based IDPS • Examines data traffic for something that matches the preconfigured, predetermined attack pattern signatures • Weakness: slow and methodical attacks may slip undetected through the IDPS, as their actions may not match a signature that includes factors based on duration of the events

  36. Statistical Anomaly-Based IDPS • First collects data from normal traffic and establishes a baseline • Then periodically samples network activity, based on statistical methods, and compares the samples to the baseline • Advantage: Able to detect new types of attacks, because it looks for abnormal activity of any type

  37. Managing Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems • IDPSs must be configured to differentiate between routine circumstances and low, moderate, or severe threats • A properly configured IDPS can translate a security alert into different types of notifications • Most IDPSs monitor systems using agents • Consolidated enterprise manager

  38. Honeypot & Honeynet Honeypot: A system with a special software application which appears easy to break into Honeynet: A network which appears easy to break into • Purpose: Catch attackers • All traffic going to honeypot/net is suspicious • If successfully penetrated, can launch further attacks • Must be carefully monitored Firewall Honey Pot External DNS VPN Server IDS Web Server E-Commerce

  39. Remote Access Protection • Network connectivity using external connections • Usually much simpler and less sophisticated than Internet connections • Simple user name and password schemes are usually the only means of authentication

  40. RADIUS and TACACS • Systems that authenticate the credentials of dial-up access users • Typical dial-up systems place the authentication of users on the system connected to the modems • Options: • Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) • Terminal Access Controller Access Control(TACACS)

  41. Authentication Protocols • RADIUS • Over-the-wire protocol from client to AAA (authentication, authorization, accounting) server • TACACS • Between access point or gateway and an AAA server • Replaced by TACACS+ and RADIUS

  42. RADIUS and TACACS (cont’d.) Source: Course Technology/Cengage Learning

  43. Managing Connections • Organizations that continue to offer remote access must: • Determine how many connections the organization has • Control access to authorized modem numbers • Use call-back whenever possible • Use token-based authentication if at all possible

  44. Wireless Networking Protection • Use IEEE 802.11 protocol • War driving • Moving through a geographic area or building, actively scanning for open or unsecured WAPs • Common encryption protocols used to secure wireless networks • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) • Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)

  45. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) • Provides a basic level of security to prevent unauthorized access or eavesdropping • Fundamental Cryptological Flaws • Resulting in vulnerabilities that can be exploited, which led to replacement by WPA

  46. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) • WPA is an industry standard • IEEE 802.11i • Has been implemented in products such as WPA2 • WPA2 has newer, more robust security protocols based on the Advanced Encryption Standard • WPA /WPA 2 provide increased capabilities for authentication, encryption, and throughput

  47. Managing Wireless Connections • Regulate the wireless network footprint • Select WPA or WPA2 over WEP • Protect preshared keys

  48. Wi-Fi security • SSID should be a non-default value • SSID broadcast should be disabled • MAC access control • Authentication • Require ID and password, may use a RADIUS server • Encryption • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) • WPA (Wireless Protected Access) • WPA2 (superset of WPA, full standard

  49. PSK v. RADIUS • WPA and WPA-2 operate in two modes • Pre-Shared Key (PSK) • Users must enter the key on each device • RADIUS server • Used with 802.1x authentication • Each user has an individual key • More secure, recommended for enterprises

  50. Scanning and Analysis Tools • Used to find vulnerabilities in systems • Security administrators may use attacker’s tools to examine their own defenses and search out areas of vulnerability • Scanning tools • Footprinting • Fingerprinting