Plant Nomenclature Bio 218 Fall 2012 Dr. Dale Benham
Three parts to a binomial Erythroniumalbidum Nutt. 1. Genus(plural = genera) • Latin (or Latinized) = underline or italicize • noun - gendered: masculine, feminine, neuter 2. specific epithet (= species according to some) • Latin (or Latinized) = underline or italicize • adjective or a possessive noun 3. Authority • scientist naming the species (abbreviated name) • rarely used, except for the initial time in an article • Original author(s) ALWAYS remain with name • becomes parenthetical author(s) when new combination occurs • combining author(s) of NEW combination at end - all others removed
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) Two basic activities • naming new taxa • determining the correct name for previously named taxa
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) • precise and simple system dealing with: • terms which denote the ranks of taxonomic groups or units • [subspecies, family, genus, species, variety, etc.] • the scientific names which are applied to the individual taxonomic groups of plants
Principles of Nomenclature p. 612 • independent of zoological nomenclature • application of names of taxonomic groups is determined by means of nomenclatural types • the specimen which the author cites in the original description - purely a nomenclatural device, not a biological model holotype - the single specimen designated by the author from the original collection of the new entity isotype - duplicates of the holotype lectotype - chosen by someone other than the author, but based on the author's collection neotype - chosen in absence of any material from the author syntype - any one of 2 or more specimens cited by the author when no holotype was designated, or any one of two or more specimens simultaneously designated as types topotype - specimen of a named taxon collected from the original type locality
Type specimen • designated as specimen on which the species description is based • dried plant specimen stored in herbarium or museum • serves as basis for comparison
Principles of Nomenclature • Nomenclature of a taxonomic group is based upon priority- the earliest that is in accordance with the Rules is that correct name • only one correct name exists for each taxon • valid publication is needed, including the following: begins 1 May 1753, with the publication of Species Plantarumby Linnaeus • effective publication (published in printed matter generally available to botanists) • As of 1 Jan 2012:Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF) with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN) will constitute effective publication • publication in the form specified for the name of each category of taxa
Principles of Nomenclature • publication with a description or diagnosis (or a reference to a previously published description or diagnosis) • accompaniment by a Latin description or diagnosis or by a reference to a previously and effectively published Latin description or diagnosis of the taxon • As of 1 Jan 2012:A description or diagnosis may be in either Latin or English • Scientific names of taxonomic groups are treated as Latin regardless of their derivation • The Rules of Nomenclature are retroactive unless expressly limited
Some rules about binomials • Binomial = scientific name = species (plural & singular) genus + specific epithet • First letter of genus is the only letter capitalized = Quercusrubra • No article is used before the name, since it is a proper name ≠theAbiesconcolor • Genus is sometimes abbreviated with first letter followed by a period = Acer saccharinumbecomes A. saccharinum • No tautonomy (repetition of generic and specific epithet names) • Rosa rosa is an illegitimate name
Infraspecific Taxa • Taxon (taxa = plural) • a group of organisms of any rank given formal recognition in a classification hierarchy (e.g., class, order, family, genus, species, variety) • Geographical variation in a species is sometimes noted • subspecies (ssp. or subsp.) • varieties (var.) • Sporatic, non-geographical variation • normally not named, but some designate as forms (f.)
Do Names Change? • Change of taxonomic position: E.g., Sedum variegata transferred to the genusDudleya, the new species Dudleyavariegata • Change in taxonomic rank: E.g., Larreadivaricata ssp. tridentata changed to species rank: Larreatridentata
Basionym • The “name bearing”name • Basionym remains in new name, along with original author • Keeping track of name changes E.g., Sedum variegata S. Watson was transferred to the genus Dudleya by Moran, new species name is: • Dudleyavariegata (S. Watson) Moran • [Note: Sedum variegata S. Watson is the basionym] E.g., Muhlenbergiashepherdii (Vasey) Swallen transferred to Blepharoneuron by P. M. Peterson & Annable, new name: • Blepharoneuronshepherdii (Vasey) P. M. Peterson & Annable
Autonyms: Automatically created name for infrafamilial, infrageneric, and infraspecifictaxa E.g., Lotus stipularis (Benth.) Greene split by Isely into 2 varieties: Lotus stipularis (Benth.) Greene var. ottleyiIsely Lotus stipularis (Benth.) Greene var. stipularis Later, genus Hosackiaaccepted: HosackiastipularisBenth. var. ottleyi(Isely) Brouillet HosackiastipularisBenth. var. stipularis
Fig. 16.2 p. 616
What is a synonym? Why rejected? a rejected name, byaparticularauthororauthors Synonyms usually indicated in brackets; e.g., Malosmalaurina (Nutt.) Abrams [Rhuslaurina Nutt.] • illegitimate • taxonomic judgement
What is a correct name? How can a name be legitimate but not correct? A legitimate (and therefore validly published) name that is accepted by a particular author or authors. Each taxon can have only one correct name. • There may be 2 (or more) alternative, legitimate names. • Only one of these can be correct (in any given work).
Tracing Nomenclatural History Notholaena cochisensis Goodding Cheilanthescochisensis (Goodding) Mickel Cheilanthessinuata (Lagasca ex Swartz) Domin var. cochisensis (Goodding) Munz Notholaenasinuata (Lagasca ex Swartz) Kaulfuss var. cochisensis (Goodding) Weatherby Astrolepiscochisensis (Goodding) D. M. Benham & Windham
Malacothrixincana (Nutt.) Torrey & A. Gray[Malacomerisincanus Nutt.] (=basionym) Other examples of synonyms PorophyllumgracileBenth.[P. caesium Greene; P. vaseyiGreene] Giliadiegensis (Munz) A. D. & V. E. Grant[Giliainconspicua (Sm.) Sweet var. diegensisMunz] (=basionym)
Abbreviations: "in" = "in the publication of" E.g., Arabissparsiflora Nutt. in T. & G. May be abbrev: Arabissparsiflora Nutt. "ex" = "validly published by." E.g., Microseriselegans Greene ex A. Gray May be abbrev.: Microseriselegans A. Gray.
Abbreviations "x" = a hybrid. E.g., Salvia xpalmeri (A. Gray) Greene = S. apiana x S. clevelandii. "sp. nov." = species novum E.g., "Eryngium pendletonense sp. nov." "cf." = confer, meaning "compare." E.g., "Calyptridium cf. monandrum"