Domestic Policy Issues & Policies of the Early Presidents
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Domestic Policy Issues & Policies of the Early Presidents Problems Faced By AII the Early Leaders of Our Country. George Washington. Set precedent (example) for others to follow Ex. o f precedent was establishing the Presidential cabinet Known as the “Father of our country and possessed:

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Domestic Policy Issues & Policies of the Early PresidentsProblems Faced By AII the Early Leaders of Our Country

George washington
George Washington

  • Set precedent (example) for others to follow

  • Ex. of precedent was establishing the Presidential cabinet

  • Known as the “Father of our country and possessed:

    • Honesty

    • Inspiration

    • Practicality

George washington1
George Washington

  • Careful not to overstep powers given by the Constitution

  • Closely followed Article II’ description of a president's role

  • Enforced national described in Article II when he put down the Whiskey Rebellion

George washington2
George Washington

  • Emphasized staying neutral when dealing with France & Britain in his “Farewell Address”

  • Also urged Americans to practice “unity at home…neutrality abroad”

  • Believed we couldn’t be independent if we had ties to other nations

  • U.S. attempted to remain neutral through 19th century

George washington3
George Washington

  • Judiciary Act was passed during Washington’s term

  • Constitution called for national court system headed by Supreme Court and lower courts

  • It didn’t explain how the two would relate

George washington4
George Washington

  • Supported Alexander Hamilton’s economic plan, which called for:

    • Protective tariffs to help our home industry compete with foreign industry.

    • Lower other kinds of tariffs to keep money in the pockets of our people to spend

    • Creation of national bank (loose interpretation of the Constitution based on the "elastic clause")

  • Federalists and anti-federalists had developed into opposing groups calling themselves the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans

  • Washington feared U.S. government was going to split and fall apart

Beginning of political parties
Beginning of Political Parties

  • Political parties developed due disagreements over the role/strength of the national government

  • Alexander Hamilton

    • Led the Federalists

    • supported John Adams for the next president

  • James Madison & Thomas Jefferson

    • Led the Democratic-Republicans

    • supported Jefferson for president.

Beginning of political parties1
Beginning of Political Parties

  • Federalist beliefs:

    • Economy based on industry and business (much of their support came from Northern merchants and industry)

    • Supported a strong federal government

    • Supported the creation of a national bank

Beginning of political parties2
Beginning of Political Parties

  • Democratic-Republican beliefs:

    • An economy based on farming and agriculture.

    • Stronger state governments

    • State banks rather than a national bank they thought unconstitutional.

John adams
John Adams

  • Adams was vice-president under Washington and then becomes our 2nd president.

  • Alexander Hamilton & Federalists supported JohnAdams.

  • Adams faced foreign affairs problems

  • Due to the U.S. being affected by the war between France and Britain

John adams1
John Adams

  • Was hard for the U.S. to remain neutral

  • France expected the U.S. to help them since they aided U.S. during the Revolutionary War

  • U.S. wanted to stay on good terms with Britain (Britain was an important trading partner)

John adams2
John Adams

  • Both England and France captured U.S. ships

  • This interfered with trade.

  • Federalists sided with Britain

  • Democratic-Republicans with France.

  • Some, esp. the Federalists, begin to fear that France was going to try to undermine U.S. government by getting French immigrants involved in U.S. political system.

John adams3
John Adams

  • As a result John Adams supported The Alien and Sedition Acts passed by Congress.

  • Alien Act required a longer time for immigrants to become citizens and to participate in government.

  • Sedition Act was politically aimed at the Democratic-Republicans who spoke against Adams and other

  • Sedition Act made it against the law to criticize the president and other high officials.

John adams4
John Adams

  • Sedition Actviolated the first amendment (freedom of speech)

  • Kentucky and Virginia nullified Alien & Sedition Acts

  • Said it was the right of a state to follow or nullify a federal law

  • Depending on whether it violated a state's rights.

Thomas jefferson
Thomas Jefferson

  • Tied with Aron Burr on ballot for president (both were Democratic-Republicans)

  • Supported economy based on agriculture

  • Opposed national bank

  • Cut size of army and navy to save government money

  • Cut all taxes except import taxes (customs duties).

Thomas jefferson1
Thomas Jefferson

  • Marbury v Madison case happened under his term

  • France acquired New Orleans & land west of the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Spain

  • 1803 (Louisiana Purchase)

    • U.S. offered to buy the land

    • France decided to sell the entire Louisiana Territory for just $15 million

Thomas jefferson2
Thomas Jefferson

  • Jefferson sent Lewis & Clark leave St.Louis, Missouri and explore the Louisiana Purchase

  • Wanted to know if there was an all-water route to Pacific

  • Sacagawea, a Shoshone woman, serves as an essential part of the expedition

Thomas jefferson3
Thomas Jefferson

  • As Britain and France continued to interfere with American trade as their war waged on

  • British begin to kidnap (impressment) American sailors to serve in the British navy

  • Congress passed the Embargo Act in 1807, which prohibited trade with all foreign countries (espintended to hurt the British economy)

  • Backfired and hurt the U.S. economy more than any.

James madison
James Madison

  • James Madison,

    • Democratic-Republican,

    • Was supported by Thomas Jefferson to become our 4th president.

    • stood only 5'4"

    • Was married to Dolly Madison, who became a very popular first lady

James madison1
James Madison

  • England continued impressment of U.S. sailors and interference with U.S. shipping

  • British supported Indian resistance on the frontier

  • War Hawks = Americans who supported declaring war against Britain.

  • They also supported taking Canada

  • British ended their war with France and turned all attention to attacking the U.S.

James madison2
James Madison

  • They attacked Washington D.C. and set fire to many public buildings

  • Including White House and capital building.

  • Dolly Madison saved a famous painting of George Washington when she fled the White House just before the British burned it down

  • The British tried and failed to take Ft. McHenry at Baltimore

  • Francis Scott Key wrote the poem that became “The Star Spangled Banner” while watching this

James madison3
James Madison

  • Andrew Jackson had gained military success fighting the Indians (Red Stick Confederacy) on the frontier.

  • Jackson successfully defended New Orleans when British attacked

  • This made him a national hero

  • Since Britain was no longer fighting France, the need to capture U.S. ships and impress sailors was gone

James madison4
James Madison

  • Treaty of Ghent brought peace between the U.S. and Britain with no clear winner

  • As a result of the War of 1812, the United States was viewed as being the leader of the Western Hemisphere

  • It ended the threat from Britain for good.

James monroe
James Monroe

  • Issued the “Monroe Doctrine”

  • Doctrine basically said that America would not get involved in European affairs and

  • Also that America wouldn’t allow European countries to create any new colonies in North or South America.

James monroe1
James Monroe

  • Foreign policy under Monroe said the U.S. would resist any nation attempting to interfere in the affairs of nations in the Western Hemisphere

  • This held true for nearly I00 years.

  • U.S. acquired Florida from Spain.

  • Which became a U.S. territory (stage before becoming a state).

  • No one ran against James Monroe for his 2nd term

  • This was called the Era of Good Feelings