COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR III I BIMESTRE ESCUELA: Inglés NOMBRES: Lic. Paúl González T. ABRIL – AGOSTO 2009 FECHA:
PAST PERFECT • By the end of the evening, it had won four Oscars. • … (more than any foreign language film hadever gotten) • Before this, Lee had made big, successful English language movies … • By 9:00 A.M., I hadn’teven gottenup!
Use the past perfect to show that something happened before a specific time in the past. • We often use the past perfect and the past perfect progressive with By(a certain time) By 2000, I had left my hometown. By the time I graduated, I had been working in a restaurant.
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE • For six years, his wife had been working as a researcher, … • … he had been writing scripts …
Use the past perfect progressive to talk about an action that was in progress before a specific time in the past. The progressive emphasizes the continuing activity, not the end result.
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE (unit 5) • Her son will be waking up soon • Use the future progressive to talk about actions that will be in progress at a specific time in the future.
FUTURE PERFECT (unit 6) • A typical college freshman will have gotten eight credit card offers by the end of the first semester. • Everything you bought on that card will have cost twice as much as the actual price.
Use the future perfect to talk about a future action that will already be completed by a certain time in the future. • We often use already and yet with the future perfect to emphasize which event will happen first. • By the time I graduate, I will have already gotten a job.
FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE • …By the end of tonight’s Money Talks, we’llhave been traveling for a month, … • … I’ll have been paying interest for nine months on pizzas I ate last September!
Use the future perfect progressive to talk about an action that will be in progress at a certain time in the future. The action may start sometime in the future or it may have already started.
NEGATIVE YES/NO QUESTIONS AND TAG QUESTIONS • Use negative yes/no questions and tag questions to: • Check information you believe to be true. • Comment on a situation.
TAG QUESTIONS • That’s not in Seoul, is it? • You’re not from Rio, are you? • It gets awfully hot here in the summer, doesn’t it? • You could tell right away by my accent, couldn’t you?
TAG QUESTIONS: statement + tag • The statement expresses an assumption. The tag means Right? Or Isn’t that true? • If the statement verb is affirmative, the tag verb is negative. • If the statement verb is negative, the tag verb is affirmative.
Use the same auxiliary that is in the statement. • If the statement does not use be or an auxiliary verb, use an appropriate form of do in the tag. • In the tag, only use pronouns.
NEGATIVE YES/NO QUESTIONS • Don’t you miss your family …? • Hey, didn’t you buy anything? • Haven’twe met before? • Aren’t I right? • We almost always use contractions in negative questions.
ADDITIONS USING SO, TOO, NEITHER, NOT EITHER, and BUT • We use additions to avoid repeating information. • Additions express similarity or contrast.
SO AND BUT • Paul is a firefighter, and so is Gerald. (Paul is a firefighter. Gerald is a firefighter- SIMILARITY) • Andrea stayed in Germany, but Barbara didn’t. (Andrea stayed in Germany. Barbara didn’t stay in Germany- CONTRAST)
TOO Paul likes hunting … Gerald doestoo. Paul is a firefighter, and Gerald istoo. Paul can play chess, and Gerald cantoo. • Additions always use a form of be, an auxiliary verb, or a modal.
NOT EITHER AND NEITHER • Clearly, heredity doesn’t completely govern our lives. Our environment doesn’t either. • Mark has never been married, and neither has Gerald.
Use neither or not either if the addition follows a negative statement. • So, too, neither, or not either express similarity. • But is used in additions of contrast.
EXPRESSING AGREEMENT USING SO, TOO, NEITHER and NOT EITHER • A: I like spicy food. • B:So do I. (or I do too). • Informal: Me too. • A: I don’t like spicy food. • B:Neither do I. (or I don’t either). • Informal: Me neither.
GERUNDS • Dining on fast food has become a way of life… • But apart from the speed of ordering and getting served, …customers talk about… • …fast-food restaurants may prevent families from spending quality time together…
A gerund can be used as a noun. Swimming is good exercise. (Subject) She likes swimming every day. (Direct object of the verb like) She is crazy about swimming in the ocean. (Object of preposition).
Many verbs are followed by gerunds. She enjoyed swimming with the team. They considered reducing fats in the food. I keep searching for an answer.
Many adjectives (and prepositions) are followed by gerunds. • Gerald is interested in joining the team. • Gerald is excited about joining the team. • I don’t approve of eating fast food. • I’m tired of eating pork.
You can use a possessive before the gerund. • I didn’t like his ordering fries. • I dislike Julio’s eating fast foods. NEGATIVE FORM: not + gerund I considered not cycling up the mountain.
INFINITIVES • …it’s easy to see that fast-food restaurants … aren’t going away. • It’s a high price to pay for convenience. …people don’t want to waste time.
Some verbs can be followed by the infinitive. My brother needs to read this book. She refuses to eat fast food. I chose not no give up meat.
Many verbs that are followed by an infinitive may take a noun or pronoun between them. I urged him to order fries. She convinced Bob to join the team. My classmates expected me to say something smart.
The infinitive can often follow an adjective. We are ready to start the course. Bob was surprised to read the number of calories.
The infinitive can also follow certain nouns. • It’s time to eat. • Paul made a decision to quit smoking. • It’s a high price to pay.
MAKE, HAVE, LET, HELP and GET • But how do trainers … make them “dance”? • … a trainer lets an animal act freely. • …parks wanted to have dolphins do tricks. • Gary Priest … helped the keepers train the elephants… • But how do trainers get a nine-ton whale to do acrobatic tricks
LET (let + object + verb) • This construction means "to allow someone to do something.“ John let me drive his new car. Will your parents let you go to the party?
Make • FORM • [make + person + verb] • USE • This construction means "to force someone to do something." • Examples: • My teacher made me apologize for what I had said. • Did somebody make you wear that ugly hat? • She made her children do their homework. MAKE (make + object + verb) • This construction means "to force someone to do something." My teacher made me apologize for what I had said. Did somebody make you wear that ugly hat? She made her children do their homework.
HAVE (have + person + verb) • This construction means "to give someone the responsibility to do something." Dr. Smith had his nurse take the patient's temperature. Please have your secretary fax me the information. I had the mechanic check the brakes.
GET (get + person + to + verb) • This construction usually means "to convince to do something" or "to trick someone into doing something." Susie got her son to take the medicine even though it tasted terrible. How can parents get their children to read more? The government TV commercials are trying to get people to stop smoking.
HELP (help + base form) (help + infinitive) Help + base form of the verb is more common. He helped me understand the problem. He helped me to understand the problem.
PHRASAL VERBS • A phrasal verb (two-word verb) has two parts: come back • come – main verb • back – particle Particles often change the meaning of the main verb.
TRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS • He had set it up on a busy street. • The desperate owner tore down the old entrance and put up a new one.
Transitive – take objects. He picked out a nice suit. pick out – phrasal verb a nice suit - object
Most transitive phrasal verbs are separable. This means that noun objects can go: Turn offthe TV. (after the particle) Turnthe TVoff. (between the verb and the particle)
If the direct object is a pronoun, it must go between the verb and the article. • Turn it off. • Turn it down. • Pick me up at 7 P.M.
INTRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS • But customers rarely came back. • His action paid off. • Feng shui has caught on with homeowners and architects everywhere.
Some phrasal verbs are intransitive. They do not take an object. They are always inseparable.
INSEPARABLE TRANSITIVE • … write down the date and time of the call. (This direc object is too long to go before the particle.) … get off the phone.
Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable. This means that both noun and pronoun objects always go after the particle. You cannot separate the verb from its particle. We should stick withthe plan. We should stick withit.
SEPARABLE TRANSITIVE • You hesitate to pick it up. • “Junk mail” fills up our mailboxes (and later our trash cans when we throw it out).
A small group of transitive phrasal verbs must be separated. You need to callGeraldback. (NOT You need to call back Gerald) Keepyour coaton. (NOT Keep on your coat)
Some transitive phrasal verbs are used in combination with certain prepositions. • The combination phrasal verb + preposition(three-word verb) is usually inseparable. • This scientist came up with a new idea.
INTRANSITIVE (INSEPARABLE) • You just got back from a long, hard day at the office. • “I’mhanging up now.” • Phrasal verbs are more common in informal writing than their one-word synonyms.