Detecting Earth-Skimming and Mountain-Penetrating Tau Neutrinos - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Detecting Earth-Skimming and Mountain-Penetrating Tau Neutrinos

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  1. ISMD04 Detecting Earth-Skimming and Mountain-Penetrating Tau Neutrinos G.-L.Lin National Chiao-Tung University, Taiwan

  2. Outline • Neutrino oscillations and Astrophysical Tau Neutrino Fluxes • The Rationale for Detecting Earth-Skimming/Mountain-Penetrating  • The Conversion Efficiency for  • The Simultaneous Detections of Earth-Skimming and Mountain-Penetrating  • The Event Rate • Conclusions

  3. Neutrino oscillations and astrophysical  fluxes • Although  flux from the source is generally suppressed compared to that of  and e, the oscillation effects make the flux of each flavor comparable at the Earth.

  4. The idea of observing  in view of neutrino oscillations, was suggested sometime ago. Learned and Pakvasa1995 For a source in a cosmological distance, with e :  : =1:2:0 , the oscillation effects taking place as the neutrinos reach the terrestrial detector make e :  : =1:1:1. Athar, Jezabek, Yasuda 2000

  5. Tau neutrino fluxes Athar, Tseng and Lin, ICRC 2003

  6. Detecting Earth-Skimming/Mountain-Penetrating  The Rationale

  7. The Earth-skimming detection strategy…. Domokos and Kovesi-Domokos, 1998 Fargion, 1997, 2002 Bertou et al., 2001 Feng et al., 2001 Bottai and Giurgola, 2002 Tseng et al., 2003 Auger, TA,… Mountain-penetrating idea: Ashra-NuTel Hou and Huang, 2002

  8. Cherenkov  N only scatters once. produced near the earth surface. effective interaction region– 1 tau range! fluorescence   Energy losses and decays   N inelasticity Earth-Skimming 

  9. The “effective” tau lepton production probability =Tau Range(R) / N interaction length() R increases with energy, while decreases with energy. Hence it is favorable to detect neutrinos of higher energies! Flux?

  10. The calculation of tau lepton range requires the consideration of…

  11. The tau lepton loses its energy in the rock through 4 kinds of interactions: (1). Ionization (): the tau lepton excites the atomic electrons. H. A. Bethe 1934 (2). Bremsstrahlung (): (3). Pair Production ():   A. A. Petrukhin &V.V. Shestakov, 1968 A   R. P. Kokoulin & A. A. Petrukhin, 1971 A

  12. (4). Photo-nuclear interaction:    X N F2(x,Q2) Basic component The nucleus shadowing effect is considered: Brodsky & Lu, 1990; Mueller & Qiu 1986; E665 Collab. Adams et al., 1992; Iyer Dutta, Reno, Sarcevic &Seckel, 2001.

  13. Iyer Dutta, Reno, Sarcevic, & Seckel, 01 Tseng, Yeh, Athar, Huang, Lee, & Lin, 03 Log(E/GeV) Tau lepton range approaches to 20 km in rock. Mountain-penetrating is sufficient!

  14. Mountain-penetrating and Earth-skimming tau neutrinos/tau leptons

  15. Gandhi, Quigg, Reno, Sarcevic, 1998 The N interaction length:

  16. The “effective” tau lepton production probability

  17. The Conversion Efficiency for 

  18.  and  propagations inside the Earth     NC Energy loss CC Decay CC NC

  19. Iong, master thesis, NCTU 04 20 km in rock

  20. 100 km in rock

  21. 20 km in rock

  22. 100 km in rock minor absorptions

  23. Simultaneous Detection of Mountain-Penetrating and Earth-Skimming  ---sensitive to new physics TeV scale gravity, KK excitations…

  24. E: initial  energy, E’: final  energy, r=Log(E/E’) New physics-- a factor of 10 enhancement on N Mountain-Penetrating Rough estimate Log(E’/eV)

  25. E: initial  energy, E’: final  energy, r=Log(E/E’) Earth-Skimming Rough estimate Log(E’/eV)

  26. From 30 100 km, a drastic change on the effect of enhanced (NX)! Comparison of event rates in 2 medium lengths probes the new physics.

  27. For the mountain-penetrating case: W=20 km L=20 km H=2 km O H L The solid angle is Not small

  28. The Event Rate

  29. AGN  flux from Kalashev, Kuzmin, Semikoz, and Sigl, 03 Log(E/GeV) Tseng et al., 03

  30. GRB  flux from Waxman and Bahcall 1997 Log(E/GeV) Tseng et al., 03

  31. GZK  flux from Engel, Seckel, and Stanev, 01 Log(E/GeV) Tseng et al., 03

  32. Integrated tau lepton flux in units of km-2yr-1sr-1

  33. Effective aperture (A)eff required for 1 event/yr, assuming a 10% duty cycle.

  34. Conclusions • We have presented the essential features of detecting Earth-skimming and mountain-penetrating  . • The tau lepton flux already reaches its maximum for a 20 km medium length. This motivates the detections of mountain-penetrating  , in addition to the Earth-skimming ones.

  35. Simultaneous detections of mountain-penetrating and Earth-skimming  probes the anomalous NX cross section. We give effective aperture required for detecting 1 event/yr assuming a 10% duty cycle.