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Bully-Proofing Your School Session 5: Program Strategies, Consequences, and Reinforcements
Shifting Gears Bully-Proofing Your School As you enter, complete the Following… Activity on Moodle: • Learning Goal • Learners will understand and be able to effectively implement a bully-proofing program. Benchmarks: Strategies, Practice Interventions, Reinforcements, Consequences 2013 - 2014 Learners will observe students on campus and in the classrooms to determine conflicts as normal peer interaction or bullying. Staff will use strategies and interventions to solve conflicts. Staff will reward with positive reinforcements. Community will observe and support children and staff. Objectives Reflect on your new learning and how you will implement it. Sum-It-Up Essential Questions: What strategies could I use with the students? In my classroom? In my work area? What are some positive reinforcements? Consequences? Common Language: NEXT STEPS: Session 6: Planning Your Own School-Wide Program; Implementation • Bullying, Passive Victim, Provocative Victim, Bully-Victim, Bystanders, Caring Majority, Caring Community
Goal: • To present to the staff members the strategies include in the classroom curriculum component of this program, and suggestions for consequences and reinforcement, as background information to be used in Session 6 when planning their own school-wide program.
Tavares has Bullpup Pride Campus Expectations: • Show Positive Attitude • Think Safety First • Always Try Your Best • Respect Yourself and Others
Tavares Elementary has CLASS: Classroom Expectations: • Come Prepared to Learn • Listen and Follow Teachers’ Instructions At All Times • Always Raise Your Hand To Speak • Stay Seated Unless You Have Permission to be Up • Show Respect in All You Do
Tavares WALKS with Pride: Hallway Expectations • Walk Silently • Allow For Personal Space • Look Forward • Keep Hands Behind Back • Stay On The Blue Line
Tavares’ Manners at the TABLES: Cafeteria Expectations: • Talk Quietly • Allow for Personal Space • Be Sure to Use Table Manners • Leave Your Area Clean • Eat Within the Time Limits • Silent When Lights are Out
Tavares can handle STAIRS: • Stairway and Stage Expectations: • Slowly Walking • Tied Shoes • Allow for Personal Space • In a Line • Railing on the Right • Silent
Triangle’s PHYSICAL Interactions: • Physical Fitness and Outside Activities Expectations: • Play Responsibly • Help Others • Yearn to Learn • Stay Safe • In Order • Control Yourself • Allow for Personal Space • Listen to the Teachers & Staff
Program Strategies: • The following strategies are included in the Bully-Proofing You School: Teacher's Manual and Lesson Plans book • Classroom Rules • “No-Bullying” Posters • HA HA, SO • CARES • Weekly “I Caught You Caring” Classroom Sessions • They work because they define the behavior you want to stop, the behavior you are encouraging, and the outcome you want. • Remember, the focus is on the safety of all the students.
Classroom Rules: • From Bully-Proofing Your School • 1) We will not bully other students. • 2) We will help others who are not being bullied by speaking out and by getting adult help. • 3) We will use extra effort to include all students in activities at our school. • These rules correspond to the three policy statements comprising the formal school policy regarding bullying.
“No-Bullying” Posters • The Stop Bullying Now have been laminated and are to be hung in the classrooms and around the school building to remind the students about the rules against bullying. • Teachers may wish to display no-bullying posters drawn/colored by their students in their classrooms as well as or instead of the posters that came with the program.
HA HA, SO • This is a mnemonic device to help students remember strategies that they can use when they are being bullied. • H – Help • A- Assert Yourself • H – Humor • A – Avoid • S – Self-Talk • O – Own It • Each of these strategies is detailed for the student in the classroom curriculum in the teacher’s manual.
CARES • This is a mnemonic devise to help students remember a set of strategies that they can use when they see someone else being bullied. • C – Creative Problem Solving • A – Adult Help • R – Relate and Join • E – Empathy • S – Stand Up and Speak Out • Each of these strategies is detailed for the student in the classroom curriculum.
Weekly “I Caught You Caring” Classroom Sessions • These weekly sessions are designed for reinforcement of caring behavior within the classroom. • Sessions occur at the end of the week, Fridays, before dismissal. • They should take approximately 5- 15 minutes. • Each teacher chooses a student that was “caught” being kind or helpful to another student. • Teacher’s should keep a log of “acts of kindness” that she or he notices during the week, and pick a good example to reinforce.
Weekly “I Caught You Caring” Classroom Sessions • During the session, the teacher should announce the “Caring Student of the Week” and describe the caring behavior that he or she performed. • The teacher should discuss with the class: • Why the behavior worked • How it complied with the classroom rules • Model the skill(s) for the students • Some brief discussion can then occur about what motivated the caring behavior. • Suggestion ~ Do this activity on Wednesday’s instead. Promote excitement and reminders mid-week about positive behaviors. Students have Thursday-Friday and then Monday-Wednesday to be “caught.” Students then have a fresh motivator mid-week to try and get caught on Thursday and Friday. Plus they won’t have to wait until Friday. The lesson is reinforced mid-week and not forgotten over the weekend.
Weekly “I Caught You Caring” Classroom Sessions • Note: • These class discussions can be expanded and enlivened, if you wish, by employing creative discussion techniques. • For example, you could read Finding the Greenstone by Alice Walker to your class, and then allow the children to pass a green marble among themselves as they are “caught caring.” • Other ideas? (Moodle: Discussion Forum)
Student Nominations of “Best Caring Behavior” and “CARES Buttons” • As the program progresses, and the students become more adept at performing and recognizing caring behavior in the classroom, the students can nominate each other and vote weekly on the best example of caring behavior. • The student selected, may wear a special “CARES Button” for the week. • Teacher’s Manual ~ Page 119, Handout 33
Consequences • This program is not a punitive one by nature, as with almost any intervention, some use of consequences will need to be applied. • Before curriculum begins, a plan will be made in session 6 to determine the consequences for students who bully. • Consequences should be consistent with the consequences for breaking other school rules.
Consequences • Since bullying behavior is antisocial and hurts other children, it works well to assign consequences that involve prosocial behavior and helping other students. • These desired behaviors are practiced and reinforced. • Review Chapter Six: Effective Prosocial Discipline • It is important to delineate consequences for the first offense and subsequent offenses. • It is important for all staff members to be consistent in applying consequences for all bullying incidents by all students.
Possible Consequences for Bullying: • Missing recess and, instead, helping in the office • Making an “I Caught You Caring” award, button, or poster for use in the school • Staying after school to perform a helpful act • Tutoring another student in a mastered subject • Having to call one’s parent(s) to explain one’s behavior and have a “caring act” set as a consequence • Teaching a “class” on “thinking errors” to a lower grade level • Cleaning up trash on the playground or in the cafeteria
Possible Consequences for Bullying: • Writing a report about an altruistic leader (e.g., Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Mother Theresa) • Having lunch with or doing something nice for the student one bullied (this requires adult supervision and victim willingness) • Role playing being the victim of the same behavior with one’s teacher • Meeting with the counselor or school psychologist to discuss one’s aggressive behavior and to process “thinking errors” • Observing playground time, recording in a journal observed acts of kindness • Observing the playground time of younger students, passing out rewards to children displaying caring, kind behaviors to others • Threats – not very effective and not recommended
Reinforcement: (PBS Works!) • Reinforcement is significantly more effective than applying consequences for long-term effects. • Typically, much of the caring behaviors between students goes unnoticed and is not reinforced. • If we are lucky, some caring behaviors continues • If we are not lucky, acts of kindness dwindle and die for lack of acknowledgement.
Reinforcement: +3 -1 • It is very important for staff members to notice and give rewards for caring, prosocial behaviors observed in their students. • A good general rule to maintain a positive, caring school environment is three reinforcements for every correction of negative behavior. (+3 -1) • Bullying and misbehaviors are pretty easy to spot. • Caring behaviors are sometimes elusive to staff members. We are not accustomed to looking for them.
Reinforcement Examples: • Asking a new student to eat lunch or play with them • Speaking out when one child says something mean to another (e.g., “Calling Billy dumb was mean, and he’s not.”) • Including a child who is often excluded in a game, conversation, etc • Noticing another child’s distress and asking if he or she is okay (e.g., “You look sad. Did something happen?”) • Easing another child’s embarrassment (e.g., “Oh, I lose my place too when I’m reading out loud.”)
Reinforcement Examples: • Sharing something with a child who has forgotten his or hers (e.g., a book, pencil, snack, sports equipment, etc.) • Noticing and complimenting another child who has shown growth in something that was difficult for him or her (e.g., “You really have gotten good at kickball.”) • Being patient with another child who is going slower, either mentally or physically (e.g., helping another student who needs more time to complete his or her work or purposefully choosing a game at recess that can be enjoyed by a child who is not as skilled athletically).
Most Powerful Reinforcers and Other Examples: • Teacher attention and verbal praise are the most powerful reinforces for elementary children. • Being allowed to sit net to the teacher at lunch • Helping the teacher with a special project (e.g., hanging holiday decorations in the room, etc.) • A positive note or special certificate sent home • Displaying the child’s school photograph and name in the classroom or hallway on a “Caring Student of the Week” poster
Most Powerful Reinforcers and Other Examples: • A “cool” pencil or other school supplies • Any small toy or other item coveted by students • Gift certificates to a local fast food restaurant or video arcade • Any edible treat (popcorn, crackers, etc.) • Being allowed to pick his or her partner for the next project • Getting to go first in something • Extra free time or recess • Etc. Etc. Etc. (The possibilities are almost endless!)
Whole Class Reinforcement Examples: • After the students become adept at performing the caring behaviors and following the classroom rules, the entire class could be rewarded, weekly or after X amount of Y was earned. (e.g., Y = marbles, warm fuzzes, stickers, filled the jar/cup, etc.) • Pizza, popcorn, or ice-cream party • Watching a video in class • Extra recess time or free time within the class • Fun Friday • The whole class reinforcement should be a special reward, but it should not replace individual acknowledgement altogether.
Group Activity: • Brainstorm in small groups other possible: • Consequences • Reinforcers • Strategies that have worked • Strategies that have NOT worked • Record these ideas down • Share out ideas within the whole group • Take notes on additional ideas for future reference
Letter, April 16, 1936: Boys Take Warning Before It Is Too Late We have just learned that during the past 10 days there have been some of the boys writing bad and indecent language on the walls of this outbuilding. Would you like to have your folks know of the kind of language you are using? [sic] Some of you have sisters. Would you like to have them know you would write such language? Do not think for one minute you are going to get by without being found out. We just about know already who of you have done this and there is the possibility of not having real trouble if there is not any more of it done. Regardless of who you are when found guilty, we will go as far as consulting the authorities of The Reform School who will always have a place for you. Don’t think this is a joke. The School Board EdanJenings, George Rowe, and Mr. Noyes
A child cannot be taught by anyone who despises him, and a child cannot afford to be fooled. James Baldwin
Next Session: Planning your Own School-Wide Program • In the next session, staff members will plan their own school-wide program against bullying!