Journal Entry ~ Respond to one:. Has anyone ever tried to get you to do something by applying peer pressure? Have you ever seen an advertisement that promises something that just isn’t possible?
Hasty Generalizations: this is a broad claim made on the basis of a few occurrences. Ex: We have been in a drought for three years; that’s a sure sign of climate change.
Non sequitur: a non sequitur ties together two unrelated ideas. Ex: A university that can build a basketball arena with alumni donations should not have to raise tuitioncosts.
Post Hoc Fallacy: assumes that events that follow in time have a causal relationship. Ex: The stock market drops every year that there is a presidential election.
Rationalization: excuses and weak explanations for personal behaviors. The excuses often avoid actual causes. Ex: I could have finished my paper on time if my printer had been working.
Bandwagon Appeals: suggesting that if everyone is doing it then so should you. Ex: It doesn’t matter if I cheat on my test because everyone is doing it.
Name calling or Ad Hominem: people level accusations using names that are usually meaningless, unless those names are carefully and respectfully defined. Personal attacks on the character of a person that is involved in the argument. Ex: racist, right-winged, conservative, fascist.
Straw Man: a diversionary tactic that sets up another’s position in a way that can be easily rejected. Ex: Environmentalists won’t be satisfied until not a single human being is allowed in a national park.
Dogmatism: an attempt to persuade by asserting or assuming that a particular position is the only one conceivably acceptable within a community. Ex: No rational person would disagree that abortion is murder.
Claim-Evidence & Reasons-Enthymemes-Warrants-Backing-Qualifiers
A warrant gives the writer the authority to proceed with the case.
The warrant tells readers what your assumptions are.
It is the assumption that makes a claim seem plausible.
It is often a value or principle that you share with your readers.
Reason: Smoking causes serious diseases in smokers and endangers nonsmokers as well.--Warrant:Since the Constitution was established to “promote the general welfare” and citizens are thus entitled to protection from harmful actions by others.-Claim: So the federal government should ban smoking.
For example, if you wanted to make a claim regarding space travel it would be important to research the topic and gather information that would help you make an informed and accurate claim regarding the subject.
The information you gathered would be the backing for your warrants.
This is where the knowledge of appeals come in.
Some backing makes emotional appeals, some makes logical appeals, and some makes ethical appeals.
Sometimes the objections that the writer must consider are reasonable objections of those who see the world differently.
Claim: The federal government should ban smoking.
Qualifier: The ban would be limited to public spaces.
Good Reasons: Smoking causes serious diseases in smokers.
Nonsmokers are endangered by second-hand smoke.
Warrants: The Constitution promises to “promote the general welfare.” Citizens are entitled to protection from harmful actions by others.
Backing: The United States is based on a political system that is supposed to serve the basic needs of it’s people, including their health.
Lawsuits recently won against large tobacco companies citing the need for reparation for smoking-related health costs
Examples of bans already imposed in public places
Authority: Cite the Surgeon General
Conditions of Rebuttal: Smokers have rights too.
Smoking laws should be left to the individual states.
Such a ban could not be enforced.
Response: The ban applies to public places; smokers can smoke in private. The power of the federal government to impose other restrictions on smoking, such as warning labels on cigarettes and bans on cigarette advertisements on television, has survived legal challenges. The experience of New York City, which has imposed such a ban, suggests that enforcement would not be a significant problem.
----------Whether you like Bill Gates or not...this is pretty cool. Here's some advice Bill Gates recently dished out at a high school speech about 11 things they did notlearn in school. He talks about how feel-good, politically correct teaching has created a full generation of kids with no concept of reality and howthis concept sets them up for failure in the real world. RULE 1 Life is not fair - get used to it. RULE 2 The world won't care about your self-esteem. The world will expect you to accomplish something BEFORE you feel good about yourself. RULE 3 You will NOT make 40 thousand dollars a year right out of high school. You won't be a vice president with car phone, until you earn both.
RULE 5 Flipping burgers is not beneath your dignity. Your grandparents had a different word for burger flipping they called it Opportunity. RULE 6 If you mess up,it's not your parents' fault, so don't whine about your mistakes, learn from them. RULE 7 Before you were born, your parents weren't as boring as they are now. They got that way from paying your bills, cleaning your clothes and listening to you talk about how cool you are. So before you save the rain forest from the parasites of your parent's generation, try delousing the closet in your own room.
A student wants to gather good reasons in support of a claim that his school designate more parking spaces for bicycles.