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Bellwork. According to legends, which brother went on to become the first king of Rome? Romulus or Remus Pg. 264. I. Italy’s Geography. Italy is a peninsula that is located in the center of the Mediterranean region Italy is shaped a lot like a boot

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  1. Bellwork According to legends, which brother went on to become the first king of Rome? Romulus or Remus Pg. 264

  2. I. Italy’s Geography • Italy is a peninsula that is located in the center of the Mediterranean region • Italy is shaped a lot like a boot • The Alps are the mountains to the north that separate Italy from the rest of Europe. • The Tiber River provided Rome with water and a way to ship goods to the Mediterranean Sea

  3. Italy’s mild climate and good farmland attracted people to the area • Around 1500 B.C. people began to settle the area

  4. II. The Founding of Rome Legend #1 • Romulus and Remus were brothers that were abandoned as babies near the Tiber River. • They were rescued by a wolf and then found by a shepherd.

  5. When the two brothers got older they decided to build a city. • During the process they fought and Romulus killed Remus. • Romulus went on to become the first king and named the city Rome, after himself

  6. Legend #2 • The Roman poet Virgil wrote an epic called “The Aeneid” • This was his version of how Rome was established.

  7. In his epic, the Trojan hero Aeneas and a group of soldiers escaped Troy after the Greeks captured the city. • After many adventures the group landed in Latium.

  8. Once there, Aeneas married the local kings daughter and later founded the city of Rome. What probably happened • Around 700 B.C., several different groups that had settled in the general area decided to band together for protection. • From this the community of Rome was formed.

  9. III. Outside Influences on Rome • From 750 B.C. - 55O B.C. two groups began settling in Italy. Greeks • The Greeks began colonizing the region for its farmland. • The Romans adopted many of the Greek customs. They copied their architecture and even parts of the Greek religion.

  10. Etruscans • The Etruscans had a strong organized military • The Etruscans ruled Rome for 100 years. • During that time the Romans modeled their armies after the Etruscans • Eventually in 509 B.C. the Romans rebelled and kicked the Etruscans out.

  11. IV. Rome’s Government • There were two social classes in Rome • Patricians = nobles, wealthy • Plebeians = farmers, shopkeepers, etc • Men from both groups were Roman citizens • Citizens had the right to vote and the responsibility of serving in the army and to pay taxes

  12. Plebeians could not hold political office • Members of the two groups were not allowed to marry each other The Council of Plebs • Plebeians were unhappy because they could not hold office • 494 B.C. plebs went on strike – refused to join military and left to start their own city • 471 B.C. – The Council of Plebs was established. It was a representative body that could veto laws and bring Plebeian concerns to the gov’ts attention

  13. 287 B.C. The Council of Plebs gained the power to pass laws. Roman Law • The rule of law is one of the most important ideas Rome gave the rest of the world. • The 12 Tables were the first code of laws established for Romans. They applied only to Roman citizens

  14. As the Roman Empire began to grow they created another law code for others that were not Roman Citizens, called the Law of Nations • These law codes established an idea that the law applies to everyone equally. • The standards applied by these codes are still copied by the U.S. today.

  15. V. Punic Wars • Carthage was Rome’s biggest rival in the Mediterranean area. • Carthage had made itself rich and powerful by controlling shipping and trade. First Punic War - was fought over the island of Sicily - the war lasted 20 years and was largely fought by the navies - Rome defeated Carthage, took control of Sicily, and forced Carthage to pay a large fine

  16. 2nd Punic War • Rome helped the people of Spain rebel against Carthage • Carthage sends its most famous general Hannibal to try and conquer Rome • Hannibal marched his army over the Alps to attack Rome from the north • Hannibal lost many soldiers to starvation, cold, and attacks form barbarian tribes

  17. He won several key battles and controlled most of Rome’s lands in the North Rome would have to come up with a plan to stop Hannibal’s army

  18. Hannibal of Carthage Scipio of Rome

  19. Rome decided that in order to defeat Hannibal and his army they needed to send their best general Scipio to attack Carthage • This forced Hannibal to leave Italy and march back to Carthage to defend his home. • Hannibal’s army was destroyed at the battle of Zama and Rome won the 2nd Punic War.

  20. VI. Bread and Circuses -Reasons Plebs could not compete with Patricians 1. could not afford to buy land 2. many farms were damaged by Hannibal’s army 3. slavery • In order to control the angry Plebieans, the wealthy politicians began providing cheap food and free entertainment. • This policy became known as “Bread and Circuses”

  21. There were two brothers that wanted to help the poor Plebiean farmers • They were Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus • Both were wealthy senators and wanted the gov’t to take back the public land and give it to the Plebs. • These men were not popular with the other patricians. • Tiberius and Gaius were both killed by other senators

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