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LEARNING. e-Learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning-ch1&2 Clark, R. C. & Mayer, R. E. (2002). Advisor: Ming-Puu Chen Reporter: Chia-Yen Feng. Chapter 1 e-Learning promise & pitfalls. Outline. Definition of e-Learning

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e-Learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning-ch1&2

Clark, R. C. & Mayer, R. E. (2002)

Advisor: Ming-Puu Chen

Reporter: Chia-Yen Feng

  • Definition of e-Learning
  • A description of different types of e-Learning
  • Potential benefits and drawbacks to e-Learning
what is e learning


What & Why

What is e-Learning?
  • What
    • Includes content (information)
    • Uses instructional methods (techniques)
  • How
    • Uses media elements
  • Why
    • Builds new knowledge and skills

e - Learning

e learning development process
e-Learning development process
  • Performance analysis
    • Help meet important organizational goals by filling a gap in knowledge and skills
    • e-learning is the best delivery solution
  • Defining e-Learning content
    • Job or content analysis
    • Content types
      • Fact, concept, process, procedures, principles
  • Design
    • Create a course blueprint
  • Development
  • Testing & implementation
    • Defining the instructional methods & media elements
    • How delivery platforms influence instructional methods and media elements
five types of content in e learning
Five types of content in e-Learning
  • Fact
    • Specific and unique data or instance
  • Concept
    • A category that includes multiple examples
  • Process
    • A flow of events or activities
  • Procedure
    • Take performed with step-by-step actions
  • Principle
    • Task perform by adopting guidelines
e learning goals
e-Learning goals
  • Inform programs
    • Build awareness or provides information
  • Perform programs
    • Build specific skills
    • Two types
      • Procedural (near transfer,相似性轉移)
      • Principle-based (far transfer,差別性轉移)
is e learning better media comparison research
Is e-Learning better? Media comparison research
  • The hundreds of media comparison studies have shown no difference in learning
  • All the media comparison research is that it’s not the medium  the instructional methods that cause learning
  • Each medium offers unique opportunities to deliver instructional method  effectively support human learning
what make e learning unique
What make e-Learning unique?
  • Practice with feedback
    • Responds with hints or feedback supporting immediate correction or errors
  • Collaboration in self-study
    • There is a growing research base on the benefits of learning together versus solo
  • Use of simulation to accelerate expertise
e learning the pitfalls
e-Learning : the pitfalls
  • Failure to base e-Learning on job analysis
    • Lessons do not build knowledge and skills that transfer to the job
  • Failure to accommodate human learning processes( human learning limits and strengths)
    • Lesson overload cognitive process and learning is disrupted
  • E-learning dropout
    • Learner do not complete their instruction
what is good e courseware
What is good e-Courseware
  • Training goals
    • Inform student, perform procedure, perform principle
  • Learner difference (the prior knowledge)
    • Instructional methods appropriate to the learner’s characteristics( e.g learning styles, prior knowledge)
  • Training environment
    • Technical constraint
    • Cultural factors
    • Pragmatic constraint (e.g. budge, time, management expectations)
three types of e learning
Three types of e-Learning
  • Receptive: information acquisition
    • Receptive instruction (show-and-tell)
    • Include lots of information with limited practice opportunities
    • Designed for inform goals
  • Directive: response strengthening
    • Directive instruction (show-and -do)
    • Require frequent responses from learners with immediate feedback
    • Drill and practice
    • Designed for perform-procedure goals
  • Guided discovery: knowledge construction
    • Provide job-realistic problems and supporting resources
    • Designed for perform-principle goals
  • How do people learn
  • How e-Lessons affect human learning
  • What is good research
how do people learn 1 3
How do people learn?(1/3)
  • Two channels:visual & auditory
  • Limited capacity for processing information
  • Learning occurs by active processing in memory information
  • New knowledge and skills  retrieved form LTM
  • transfer to job
how do people learn 2 3
How do people learn?(2/3)
  • The center of cognition since all active thinking take places there
  • A limited of capacity memory
how do people learn 3 3
How do people learn?(3/3)
  • Encoding
  • Rehearsal
  • retrieval
how e lessons affect human learning 1 2
How e-lessons affect human learning (1/2)
  • Selection of the importance information in the lesson
  • Management of the limited capacity in working memory to allow the rehearsal needed for learning
    • Coherence principle (ch7)
  • Methods for integration
    • Contiguity principle (ch4)
how e lessons affect human learning 2 2
How e-lessons affect human learning (2/2)
  • Methods for retrieval and transfer
  • Methods for metacognitive monitoring
    • Management of all of these process via metacognitive skills
    • Self-check: to asses oneself skill acquisition
summary of learning processes
Summary of learning processes
  • Focus on key graphics and words in the lesson to select what will be processed
  • Rehearse information in working memory to organize and integrate it with existing knowledge in LTM apply cognitive load reduction tecniques
  • New knowledge stored in LTM must be retrieved back on the jobtransfer of learning
  • Metacognitive skills manage and adjust these processes
what is good research
What is good research?
  • Informal studies (observational studies)
    • Conclusion bases on feedback from and observations of students
  • Controlled studies (experimental studies)
    • Conclusion bases on outcome comparison of randomly assigned participants to groups with different treatments
  • Clinical trials (controlled field testing)
    • Conclusion bases on outcome of lessons taken in actual learning settings
how can you identify relevant research
How can you identify relevant research
  • How similar are the learners in the research study to your learner?
  • Are the conclusions based on an experimental research design?
  • Are the experimental results replicated?
  • Is learning measured by tests that measure application?
  • Does the data analysis reflect statistical significance as well as practical significance?
interpretation of research statistics
Interpretation of research statistics
  • Means
  • Standard deviation
    • High averages and low SD
  • Probability
  • Effect size