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Chapter Three: Traditional African-American Music

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  1. Chapter Three: Traditional African-American Music From Africa to Afrocentric Innovations Some Call “Jazz”

  2. Traditional African-American Music • Music Evolves During the Struggle for Independence and Equal Rights….X • American Folksongs and the Blues: Pre-Civil War……………….…………..X • Marches……………………………………………..……………………………X • Minstrel Shows.…………………………………………………………………..X • The Dawn of Ragtime……………………………………………………………X • The Term “Jazz”………………………………………………………………….X • Musical Influence on Religion, Racism, and Revolution.……...………………X Voodoo_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ X • Jim Crow Segregation Perpetuates Segregated Musical Styles…………….X • Summary…………………………………………………………………………..X

  3. A. Definitions - terminology - concepts, places, etc. Think of the effect each has on the evolution of African-American art music. Cross fertilization, racism, 13. Creole, mulatto, etc. sexism, artistic pillaging 14. Elements of Style 2. Africanization 15. Beat-metrical organization & tempo Swing & Rhythm 16. Artistic purpose and/or philosophy 4. Origins of the term jazz 17. Call and response 5. Polyrhythmical 18. Tunes, arrangements, and compositions Syncopation 19. Ostinato 7. Blue Note 20. decorating tones 8. Cultural function 21. Art, Folk & Popular Music Melody 22. African Griot Harmony & changes 23. Storyville & The French Quarters Blues, & AABA Form 24. Patting Juba 12. Timbre (tone color) 25. Place Congo (Congo Square)

  4. B. Understanding the history of the original names used (both appropriately and inappropriately) to describe the music we now call “jazz:” 1. March music 2. Novelty music 3. Juke music 4. Fun music 5. Ragged music 6. Blue music 7. Folk music 8. Jass 9. The "Devil's" Music

  5. C. Traditional African musical elements frequently retained in the spiritual, blues, "jazz" and other music within the African Diaspora; an adaptation resulting from the distillation of African multi-linguism (etc.), subconscious memory, a social necessity in an environment where communication was severely restricted, and the convergences of cultural traits within an oppressive American society. 1. Call and response 14. Interdisciplinary performances 2. Blue notes (microtones) 15. Communal participation 3. Polyrhythms 16. Sustained intensity 4. Street cry - Field hollar 17. Delivery projects over great distance (outdoors) 5. Work song 18. Propensity toward embellishment 6. Sea shanty 19. No musical time limits 7. Church & Spirituality (ritual) 20. Metronomic and repetitive 8. Falsetto Break 21. Hypermetric, non-periodic, rubato, elastic 9. Signifying songs 22. Tension & release 10. Bantu Rain songs 23. Consonance & dissonance 11. timbral liberation (natural sounds) 24. Pitch treatment 12. Ring shout 25. Display of virtuosity 13. Oral tradition 26. Voice imitating instrument & visa versa

  6. D. Religious influences on “jazz:”1) The Great Awakening Periods (1700's and the1800's) 2) Voodoo vs. Catholicism and the contradistinction between these and the Protestant religions (especially Methodist and Baptist) 3) Understanding the following terms:a. spiritual b. gospel c. jubilee d. lining out e. jerks and jerking E. The Blues1) Geographical regions involved in the development: a. Delta (Mississippi - Alabama) b. The Territories (Texas- Louisiana-Arkansas- Oklahoma-Missouri) c. Southeastern seaboard (Georgia - Florida) d. Chicago (urban) e. Kansas City (Mid and Southwestern - urban) f. Memphis (urban) 2) Understanding the major types of Blues and the innovators of each.

  7. Question: WHY DO SOME PEOPLE FAVOR THE MUSIC OF THOSE WHO IMMITATE AFRICAN AMERICAN MUSIC (minstrels, Elvis, etc.) WHILE REJECTING THE MUSIC IN ITS ORIGINAL FORM?

  8. F.What are the differences between the various styles in terms of musical elements and sociocultural conditioning? • Rural Blues • Classical Blues • Rhythm and Blues • Urban Blues • Rock and Roll • Blues or Rock revival • Rhythm and Blues or Soul revival • Blue-eyed soul

  9. G. Minstrelsy and its effect on “jazz.” • Geographical areas involved (World's Fairs) • Major composers • Various parts of the minstrel show • Origin of the term "Jim Crow" • Origin and use of the Cake Walk • Henry "Juba" Lane (artistic integrity of African American dances). • Jack Diamond • Famous personalities who borrowed from the minstrel show • a. D. H. Lawrence • b. Charlie Chaplin • c. Al Jolson • Christies (England's and North America's love of "black face") • Hoe-down • Social concepts

  10. H. Ragtime as an early “jazz” form: • Geographical areas involved (The World’s Fair) • Major composers and their work • Mining camps • Relationship to American theater (specific composers) • Forms and styles of ragtime • Piano “rolls” • Major record companies • John Phillip Sousa as a ragtime composer • Ragtime’s relationship to Dixieland • Music for silent films Ragtime composer Scott Joplin (1868-1917) [Image: http://www.lsjunction.com/ people/joplin.htm]

  11. END