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Byzantines Justinian ( 527-565) Islam Arab World Muhammad (570?-632) Religion of Islam Expansion Two Popes Crusades Why? What ?. Key Terms Code of Justinian Koran Five Pillars of Islam Jerusalem Pope Gregory VII Pope Urban II Indulgences. Byzantines, Islam & Crusades.

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byzantines islam crusades
Byzantines

Justinian (527-565)

Islam

Arab World

Muhammad (570?-632)

Religion of Islam

Expansion

Two Popes

Crusades

Why?

What?

Key Terms

Code of Justinian

Koran

Five Pillars of Islam

Jerusalem

Pope Gregory VII

Pope Urban II

Indulgences

Byzantines, Islam & Crusades
justinian
Justinian
  • Established Code of Justinian
  • He reunified most of the old Roman empire
  • Christianity was the official religion; non-Christian worship was outlawed
code of justinian
Code Of Justinian

Justinian (r. 527-565)

  • Established a single code of laws for all
  • Its influence today:
    • Laws should be written
    • Punishments for a crime should be the same for all
code of justinian5
Code Of Justinian

Justinian (r. 527-565)

  • Established a single code of laws for all
  • Its influence today:
    • Laws should be written
    • Punishments for a crime should be the same for all

JUSTICE

Code of Justinian =

us supreme court building stone sculpture of 18 lawgivers
US Supreme Court Building(Stone Sculpture of 18 “Lawgivers)

Muhammad

Justinian

arabian islamic impact
Arabian/Islamic Impact…
  • Irrigation - increased agricultural production
  • Mathematics:
    • Numbering System: Arabic Numerals replaced cumbersome Roman Numerals
    • “Algebra” comes from Arabic word “Al-jabar” included in a math book from 820 AD
arab world
Arab World
  • Many were nomads & herded sheep and camels; other specialized in trade.
  • Outsiders tried to conquer Arabs, but were unable.
  • Mecca was an important city.
  • Arabs flourished in the desert.
muhammad 570 632
Muhammad(570?-632)
  • Born about 570 AD and grew up in Mecca.
  • After marriage, he became a social activist.
  • Received revelations from the angel Gabriel eventually included in the Koran.
  • In 622 he moved from Mecca to Medina and became VERY influential, spreading the word of Islam.
five pillars of islam
Five Pillars Of Islam
  • Creed/Faith: The belief there is only one God (Allah); Muhammad is the prophet of Allah.
  • Prayer: Five times per day believers must wash and purify themselves, face Mecca, and pray.
  • Almsgiving: All should contribute money to the poor/needy.
  • Fast: between daylight until nightfall during the month of Ramadan.
  • Pilgrimage: to Mecca during one’s lifetime.
islam judaism christianity
Islam, Judaism, Christianity
  • All worship the same God (the God of Abraham)
  • Much of the Old Testament, including prophets Abraham & Moses, are accepted (Muslims & Jews don’t accept Jesus as the Savior)
  • The belief in charity to the poor/weak
  • Jerusalem is an important city:
    • Jews: land of Abraham; promised by God
    • Christians: land of Jesus’ ministry
    • Muslims: where Muhammad ascended to heaven
following muhammad s death
Following Muhammad’s Death
  • Islamic world grew and covered more territory than the old Roman Empire at its height.
crusades
Crusades
  • A series of wars fought between Christians and Muslims.
  • Access to and control of Jerusalem was one key cause.
two popes
Two Popes
  • The Christian Church (Roman Catholic) became a powerful unifying institution by 800-900 AD
  • It was headed by the Pope
  • Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085):
    • What was Papal Primacy?
  • Pope Urban’s call (1095):
    • If they decide to fight, what will they receive?
crusades 1100 1200
Crusades(1100-1200)
  • 1st Crusade: 1097-1099
    • Christians regain control of Jerusalem.
  • 2nd Crusade: 1147-1149
    • Muslims recapture Jerusalem.
  • 3rd Crusade: 1189-1192
    • Draw: Muslims retain control of Jerusalem but allow access to the city.
indulgences
Indulgences
  • Money paid to the Church to help the war effort.
  • Why pay?
    • If a person gave the Church money, sins were forgiven and a place in heaven was secured.
byzantines islam crusades20
Byzantines

Justinian (527-565)

Islam

Arab World

Muhammad (570?-632)

Religion of Islam

Expansion

Two Popes

Crusades

Why?

What?

Key Terms

Code of Justinian

Koran

Five Pillars of Islam

Jerusalem

Pope Gregory VII

Pope Urban II

Indulgences

Byzantines, Islam & Crusades