WWW-graphics Adobe PhotoShop CS5 Mainlyused for photoretouching and image manipulation, butyoucanalsocreateoriginalartfromscratchorbased on a photograph.
Starting a new Page: • File - New
Guides: • View – Rulers and then put the mouse pointer on the ruler and drag • View – Lock Guides or View – Clear Guides
Basics • To zoom the picture: • use the Navigator (Window – Navigator) or • View – Zoom In/Out • Opening Files: • File – Open or • File – Browse in Bridge… or • File - Browse in Mini Bridge… • Saving Files: File – Save as • Undoing and redoing: • Edit – Undo (to undo the latest action) • History palette (keeps a listing of every tool you’ve used and every change you’ve made and you can undo any previous step) • File – Revert (to revert to the last saved version)
Reducing file size • PhotoShop files can get very large and fill your hard drive. You can make your files smaller several ways: • Reduce the resolution or the physical size of the image • Reduce the number of colors in the image palette • Use a format that compresses the file • Use a compression utility after the file is saved • Merge layers in native PhotoShop files
Choosing a file format • You can save your file in many different formats. Here are some hints: • If you are still going to work on a picture with PhotoShop, save it as a PhotoShop document (.psd) • If you finish working on the picture and are going to place it into another document for printing, save a copy as an EPS file if it’s going to a PostScript-compatible printer • If you’re not sure how it will be printed, save it as a TIFF because TIFF is compatible with most printers and page-layout programs • If you’re going to place your picture on a Web page, choose GIF if the picture is line art, has large areas of solid color, or uses a limited color palette • If the picture is a photograph or tone art with lots of colors, choose JPEG or PNG • If you’re going to import the picture into some other graphics program for additional work, choose BMP (for Windows-based programs).
The Selection Tools • There are several ways to select a piece of a picture. You can use any of the Selection tools: Marquee Tools, Lasso Tools, or the Magic Wand. • Photoshop's Selection tools give you the power to select the whole picture or a part of it.
The Selection Menu • Select Allsimply draws a selection marquee around the entire picture. • Deselectremoves the selection marquee from the image. • Reselectreplaces the marquee if you have accidentally deselected something. • Inverselets you select everything but one object by selecting the object and then inverting. For instance, if I had a photo of a lemon on a plate, I could select the lemon and then choose Inverse to select the plate.
Cutting and Copying • If you have cut or copied and pasted in any other application, you can do it in Photoshop. The commands are identical and so are the results. • You'll find the Cut, Copy, and Paste commands on the Edit menu. • Cutting, copying, and pasting enable you also to borrow from one picture to add to another. • Use the Copy command (Edit - Copy) or Cut command (Edit- Cut) to copy the item to the clipboard and Paste command (Edit - Paste), to put it to another place or another picture.
Cropping • Cropping is the artists' term for trimming away unwanted parts of a picture. You could think of it as a specialized kind of selection. • When you drag a cropping box around the part of the image you want to keep, click Shield on the Tool Options bar to make the rest of the screen go dark so that it's easier to see what's going on. You can still resize the selection with your mouse and finally double-click to finish the cropping. • You can also crop by making a selection with the Rectangular Marquee and then using the menu command Image - Crop to trim the picture.
Cropping exercise 1. Copy a photo of 2 persons from an Internet page into PhotoShop. 2. Crop the other person out of the photo. 3. Format the photo so, that nobody can notice that something has taken out. Use for example the Clone Stamp tool.
Resizing • You have two options: • resizing the image or • resizing the canvas. • Resizing the image makes the picture bigger or smaller. • Resizing the canvas makes the picture area bigger, while leaving the image floating within it. You'd do this if you need more space around an object without shrinking the actual image.
Resizing an Image • To resize an image, open the Image Size dialog box, Image – Image Size… • You can see the pixel dimensions in pixels (logically) or percentages. • You can also see the image print size in inches, centimeters, points, picas, or columns; percentages can also be found using the pop-up menus.
Rezising the Canvas • To resize the canvas, open the Canvas Size dialog box, Image – Canvas Size… • You can choose the width, height and color of the new canvas etc.
Rotating • There are many reasons why you might want or need to rotate an image. • If you have a scanned picture or a digital camera image that should be vertical but opens as a horizontally oriented picture, rotating it 90 degrees corrects the problem. • This is a common occurrence when you use a scanner because it's usually quicker to scan with the picture horizontal, regardless of its normal orientation. • To rotate the canvas, choose Image – Rotation and you’ll get many options
Flipping • Flippingsounds like something you'd do with a pancake, rather than a picture, but the general effect is the same. • When you flip the pancake, you reverse it so the other side cooks. When you flip the image, you reverse it so you see a mirror image. • You can flip horizontally or vertically. • The top pair of words has been flipped horizontally, and the bottom pair has been flipped vertically. • Image - Rotation – Flip Canvas horizontal/vertical • Edit - Transform – Flip Horizontal/Vertical
Skewing Selections • Skew, means to place at an angle. • When you skew an object in Photoshop, you can do more than just slant it; you can twist, stretch, and distort it. • The Skew command, found under Edit – Transform - Skew, enables you to twist your selection in all possible directions. Just click the handles and drag the selection. Click the toolbox to apply the setting, or double-click inside the selection, or press Enter. • Skewing can be used to restoring warped perspectives and because it's used on a selection instead of the whole canvas, you can straighten individual objects.
Liquify • Not all transformations have to be useful. The folks at Adobe have added something that's more of a wonderful toy than a tool. It's called Liquify, and it does exactly that to an image. You can have fun with it. • This tool is found on the Filter menu. • Pick a photo, or just draw something on a blank canvas and play with it yourself.
Color Models • They are methods of defining color. • They describe the different ways that color can be represented on paper and on the computer screen. • You can examine them using The Photoshop Color Picker: • RGB (Red, Green, Blue) • CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black) • HSB (Hue, Saturation, Brightness) • CIE Lab
Color Models • Figure below shows the Photoshop Color Picker. You can reach it by clicking either of the large blocks of color at the bottom of the toolbar. It has a graduated block of color, which you can click to select a particular shade, and text entry fields that display the numbers for any chosen color in each of the four color models.
Color Models • In addition, Photoshop has a Color palette. • If it's not already open, open it by choosing Window - Color. • It has a strip along the bottom that covers the full color spectrum, plus black and white. • Clicking anywhere on it sets the Color Picker to that range of colors.
Color Modes • They are methods of working with colors based on the models. • The Photoshop modes available under Image – Mode are: • Bitmap • Grayscale • Duotone • Indexed Color • RGB Color • CMYK Color • Lab Color • Multichannel
Which one to choose? • Do your work in RGB!! • Use RGB if you are going to publish your images on the Web. • Convert a copy of your image to CMYK if you are going to send it to the commercial print shop. • But check first that all your colors are within the CMYK gamut (View – Gamut Warning).
Foreground and background colors • At any given moment while working with Photoshop, you have two colors active: a foreground color and a background color. • The foreground color is the one you use to paint, to fill or draw. It's the color that's currently on your brush or pencil. • The background color is the color Photoshop uses when you erase or delete a selected area on the background layer. You might think of it as the color of the canvas under your painting.
Adjusting Colors • Photoshop includes a full set of tools for making color adjustments. • You can find them all on the Image - Adjustments submenu. • Some of these terms, such as Brightness/Contrast, might be familiar to you; others might not.
Adjusting by Eye with Variations • The most obvious way to make a color adjustment is to compare before and after views of an image and in Photoshop you can do this for a tool called Variations. It's on the Image -Adjustments submenu. • Variations combines several image adjustment tools into one easy-to-use system that shows you thumbnail images that are variations on the original image. • You simply click the one that looks best to you. • You can choose variations of hue and brightness and then see the result (which Photoshop calls Current Pick) compared to the original.
Making Other Adjustments • Variations is the quick way to adjust color, but sometimes it doesn't give you enough control. There are the times when you'll want to work with individual adjustment settings. • There's a palette called Histogram. It doesn't actually do anything, but if you learn how to use it, you can save yourself lots of time. • You can tell by looking at the histogram whether there's enough detail in the image, so that you can apply corrections successfully. • If you have an apparently bad photo or a bad scan, studying the histogram will tell you whether it's worth working on or whether you should throw away the image and start over. • If all the lines are bunched up tight at one end of the graph, you probably can't save the picture by adjusting it. • If you have a reasonably well-spread-out histogram, there's a wide enough range of values to suggest that the picture can be saved.
Adjustment Layers • An important point to remember about color correction is that you can apply it to the whole picture, selectively to a single area, or to all but a selected area. • When you apply a correction to the whole picture, it might improve some parts and make others worse, so you really need to look carefully at the end result and decide whether the good outweighs the bad. • An easy way to apply a correction and then change your mind is to use adjustment layers. • You can think of layers as sheets of cellophane that you place over your image and paint or paste on. If you like what you do, you can merge the layers so that the additions become part of the image. If not, you can throw them away and try again. • Adjustment layers hold the color adjustments that you make to the image. • To add an adjustment layer, choose Layer – New Adjustment Layer.
Exercise: • Open the image called Dark Birds.jpg from Y:\Tuija Kuisma\PS. • Try all the color adjustments from Image – Adjustments… to it. • After that revert the image. • Make an adjustment layer to change the color adjustments. • Delete the adjustment layer in the end.
History Brush ja Art History Brush • The History brush is very useful tool when you’re making changes in an image. • It enables you to selectively put back parts of the picture in which you’ve made a change, by selecting a brush size and painting out the new image with the old. • The Art History Brush Tool paints with a variety of stylized strokes and it uses the source data from a specified history state or snapshot.
Apply the Art History Brush: • Open any image. On the History palette, click the left column of the state you want to use as the source for the Art History Brush Tool. You’ll see a brush icon next to the thumbnail image. • Click the Art History Brush. • Set the blending mode to normal. Set the opacity to 75%. • Choose an option from the Style menu. This choice controls the shape of the paint stroke. • For Area, enter a value to specify the area covered by the paint strokes. • Enter a Tolerance value or drag the slider to limit the regions where paint strokes can be applied. A low tolerance lets you paint unlimited strokes anywhere in the image. A high tolerance limits paint strokes to areas that differ significantly from the color in the source. • Select a brush shape and start painting.
Layers • Each layer can be adjusted and edited separately • You can create as many layers as you like • You can hide layers while you work on others • You can link layers together • etc.
How to create a new layer • Start a new page. Use the Elliptical Marquee to select a large circular area on the page. Fill it with a color. Deselect the area. • Notice the thumbnail called Background in the Layers palette. • Click the small page icon at the bottom of the Layers palette to add another layer. • Draw something on the new layer. • Add one more layer and learn to use the Layers palette.
How to merge layers or flatten an image • The more layers you add to an image, the larger your image file will become. • If you want to publish your image on the Web, you need to merge layers or flatten the image when you’re done working with it. • Layer – Merge Down merges a layer with the one directly below it. • Merge Visible merges just the visible layers. • Flatten Image compresses all visible layers to one layer. Any layers that were invisible at the time are lost.
You can also… • Reorder layers • Hide / show layers • Remove layers • Change the opacity of layers • Use different blending modes with layers • Add layer effects • ect.
Filters That Improve Your Picture • Some of Photoshop's filters are strange; some are beautiful; some are merely useful—those are the ones we'll look at now. Those filters will fix common photographic problems: • Sharpen Filters • Blur Filters
Sharpen Filters • One of the most common problems photographers face is the out-of-focus picture. There are many reasons why a picture might be fuzzy. Either the subject or the photographer might have moved slightly when the picture was taken. Perhaps the camera wasn't focused correctly, or possibly the picture was taken with an inexpensive camera that had a poor quality plastic lens. • Some of these problems are easier to compensate for in Photoshop than others. • If a photo is way out of focus, there's not much that can be done to bring it back. • If it's just a little bit soft, Photoshop can at least create the illusion of sharper focus. It does this with a set of filters called Sharpen.
Sharpen Filters • Try the following filters: • Sharpen • Sharpen More • Sharpen Edges (it doesn’t affect the whole image, only the edges in the image) • Smart Sharpen—Intelligently counteract common types of photo blurring, without affecting the areas of your image that don’t need adjustment. • Unsharp Mask (Helps you to control the sharpness of an image)
Blur Filters • The Blur filters are useful tools when you want to soften effects, either of a filter you have just applied or of brush strokes in a painting. • Blurring can gently smooth a harshly lit portrait or, when used on a selection instead of the whole image, can throw an unwanted background out of focus, making it less obtrusive. • Try the following filters: • Blur • Blur More • Gaussial Blur (A controllable filter, which uses a mathematical formula to calculate the precise transition between each pair of pixels -> it neither darkens nor lightens the image. You can select an area where to apply the filter) • Radial Blur (You can either Spin or Zoom and you can choose the amount of pixels that are moved to create the blur) • Smart Blur (Blurs everything in the image or selection, except the edges. ‘It can take 10 years off a portrait subject’s face’) • Motion Blur (You can set how fast and in what direction you want the object to appear to be traveling)
Fading Filters • Filters are cool, but sometimes they just do a little too much to the image. You can set their effects to be as subtle or dramatic as you want. Others, like the basic Blur and Sharpen, don't have dialog boxes and don't give you the opportunity to apply any less than the full amount of effect that Photoshop thinks is right. But Photoshop doesn't always know best, but you do have an option. • You can apply a filter and then open Fade to fade the effect anywhere from 1%–99%. You can also use the Fade dialog box to set a blending mode for the filter effect. Even more important, you can fade whatever else you last did in the same dialog box. You painted something, but the color was too strong? Fade it 50%. That's quicker than redoing it with a different color. You overdid an image color adjustment? Fade it. The Fade command changes whatever tool or action you just applied. Experiment with this feature. It can save you hours of time. • Exercise:Find a picture and use the Blur and Sharpen filters to improve it. Find and remove wrinkles, eye bags, uneven complexions, and any other flaws.
Using Quick Mask • Masks can be your best friends when you're working on a complicated picture. • So, what exactly is a mask? In a sense, any selection that you make is a mask because it permits you to do something that affects only the selected area, effectively masking anything that's not selected. • A mask enables you to change one part of a picture, without changing all of it. • Photoshop provides a very quick and easy way to make a temporary mask that can be edited. It's called Quick Mask. • You can start with a selected area and use the Brush Tool to add to it or take away from it, or you can create the mask entirely in Quick Mask mode.
Adding Type to Pictures • Sometimes you have to add type to a picture for one reason or another. You can add type directly onto a page and edit it. You can set type vertically as well as horizontally, and you can warp it onto a predetermined path. • You can set text either by clicking a start point on the page, or by dragging the Type Tool to create a bounding box and then filling the box with type. • Photoshop places your type on a separate type layer. • Type must be rasterized (to make the type part of the picture, it must be converted from vectors to pixels, rasterized), before you can apply filters. You can apply gradient fills and layer styles such as drop shadows, bevel, and emboss, either before or after the type is rasterized.
The Type Tools • There are three different ways to control type in Photoshop. • When you select the Type Tool (the capital T in the toolbox), the Tool Options bar will display the basic type options: font, size, alignment, and a few other controls. • The Type Tool options are shown in the Figure below. • There is also Character and Paragraph palettes that give you even more control.
Creating Bevel and Emboss Effects • These two effects are found in the Layer Style dialog box. • Both produce raised type: • Bevel affects the edges of the type, producing a raised, but flat, letter surface; • Emboss gives the appearance of curved or rounded letters. The following figure shows examples of both. I added a little noise to the beveled stone with the Add Noise filter.