Medical TerminologyREVIEWS Mrs. Marr
Basic Structural Levels Cells- simplest structural level cells have structural differences that are closely related to the physiology of each cell type
What is a groups of similar cells joined together to carry out specific functions?
What is a groups of similar cells joined together to carry out specific functions? Tissues
Epithelial- outer protective layer of body, lines various body cavities, ducts, vessels, and, covers the body surface.
“ilio”-refers to hip “costal” refers to ribs “epi” on or above “gastric” – refers to stomach “hypo” beneath or under “chondral”- refers to cartilage
Superior(closer to the head) Inferior (closer to the feet) Medial(lying closer to the midline) Lateral(lying further away from the midline) Posterior(dorsal) closer to the posterior surface of the body Anterior (ventral) closer to the anterior surface of the body Proximal-closer to the origin of a structure Distal-further away from the origin of a structure
Superficial-relating to, or located near the surface Deep - relating to, or located away from the surface Median- midline Intermediate -between two other structures External refers to a hollow structure -external being outside Internal refers to a hollow structure -internal being inside Cephalad- toward the head (higher in position) Caudad-toward the tail (feet- lower in position)
Body Positions- The standard reference body position is called the “anatomical” position. The body is erect with feet together, limbs at the side, palms facing forward, thumbs pointing away from the body.
Postures and Direction of Movement • Supine- body horizontal, face up
Postures and Direction of Movement • Prone- body horizontal, face down
Postures and Direction of Movement • Right Lateral Recumbent • The Right lateral recumbent, or RLR, means that the patient is lying on their right side. • Left Lateral Recumbent • The left lateral recumbent, or LLR, means that the patient is lying on their left side.
Postures and Direction of Movement • Fowler's Position • A person in the Fowler's position is sitting straight up or leaning slightly back. Their legs may either be straight or bent. • Trendelenberg Position • A person in the Trendelenberg position is lying supine with their head slightly lower than their feet.
Postures and Direction of Movement • Abduction • Abduction is movement away from the midline, or to abduct. • Adduction • Adduction is movement toward the midline, or to add.
Postures and Direction of Movement • Flexion • Flexion is to bend at a joint, or to reduce the angle. • Extension • Extension is to straighten at a joint, or to increase the angle, for example, from 90 degrees to 180 degrees.
Postures and Direction of Movement • Supination • Supination is to rotate the forearm so that the palm faces forward. • Pronation • Pronation is to rotate the forearm so that the palm faces backward.
PLANES In anatomy, a body plane is an imaginary flat surface that is used to define a particular area of anatomy. We usually use the umbilicus as a point of reference
FRONTAL (Coronal) separates the body into Anterior and Posterior parts
SAGITTAL(MEDIAN) separates body into Right and Left parts Para-sagittal: unequal left and right sections Mid-sagittal: Even down the mid line
HORIZONTAL (transverse or Cross-Section) separates the body into Superior(top/ Upper) • and Inferior(Bottom/ Lower) parts
Regional Terms Regional Terms-refer to special areas of the body Cervical- refer to the neck Palmar- the anterior surface of the hand; the posterior surface of the hand is the dorsal surface
Regional Terms Thoracic- the portion of the body between the neck and the abdomen that is commonly referred to as the chest or thorax Dorsum- the top of the foot Plantar- the sole of the foot
Regional Terms • Axilla (armpit)- the depression on the inferior surface of the attachment of the upper limb and the body trunk • Arm- the portion of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbow • Forearm- the potion of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist
Regional Terms • Groin(inguinal region)- the junction of the thigh with the abdominal wall • Thigh- the portion of the lower limb between the hip and knee • Leg- the portion of the lower limb between the knee and ankle
Low Back • Lumbar- the portion of the back between the thorax and the pelvis • Sacral- the lower portion of the back, just superior to the buttocks
Terms of Movement • Protraction moving forward along a surface • Retraction backward along a surface
Terms of Movement • Elevation raising a structure • Depression lowering a structure
Terms of Movement • Circumduction
Terms of Movement • Circumduction-combined movements of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction medial and lateral rotation (circumscribe a cone)
Terms of Movement • Opposition
Terms of Movement • Opposition- bringing tips of fingers and thumb together as in picking something up
Abdominopelvicarea is divided intofour quadrants : • Right Upper • Right Lower • Left Upper • Left Lower
The abdominal cavity can also be divided into nine regions to make it easier to identify organs • Right hypochondriac • Epigastric • Left hypochondriac • Right lumbar • Umbilical • Left lumbar • Right iliac (inguinal) • Hypogastric • Left iliac (inguinal)
What are Body Cavities ? Body cavities- lined with membranes and contains fluid that surrounds structures within the cavities.