Design by DNA an analogical approach to design. Damian Rogers. What is Design by DNA?. Method to design the functional form of a product IE: the characteristics a product must have in order to describe its function in relation with requirements (do 0-60 in 3s)
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Products evolve over time
Evolve through external influences
Internally, through genetic mutation or inter-breeding
Through scientific advances
Phase 1: DNA sequencing for a product line
Phase 2: Using the genome to design a new product in that line
DNA is the inherited genetic material within an organism. Each gene is then a segment of its DNA. The genes are the chemical units that initiate the processes of organism development and growth, that determine the organism's characteristics and the characteristics that are inherited in a successive generations, and also regulate most of the activities which take place throughout the organism's lifetime.Genes ultimately influence all aspects of an organism's structure and function. Each chromosome contains 1 or more genes that describe the functional (and sometimes physical) characteristics of the entity.
Gene characteristics can be classified as one of two different types; namely, genotypes and phenotypes. A basic definition is as follows: genotype refers to the structural composition of specific genes, whereas phenotype refers to the outward appearance of an individual, which results from both the genotype and the influence of the environment. A genotype does not result in a phenotype unless the genotype is expressed. Gene expression refers to the biochemical processes that result in an observable physical, structural, or behavioural effect in the individual. A dormant (non-expressed) gene has no impact on the individual, and its genotype can only be established via DNA profiling. Dormant genotypes can be activated by environmental effects. For example, some humans have a genetic predisposition to developing cancer; this means they have a genotype that is common to victims of cancer, but the genotype will only be triggered if subjected to some external effect – such as smoking cigarettes. Therefore, the 'form' of the DNA remains constant, though the expression of it may change from one manifestation to the next or through some trigger event.
Evolution: Given a population of organisms, evolution proceeds based on two oppositional processes: mutation and interbreeding, which increases genetic diversity; and natural selection, which decreases genetic diversity. Mutation and interbreeding cause new variations in genes, which render as new physical characteristics (example: a longer neck). These characteristics manifest as new behaviours of organisms in successive generations to react to their environment (example: an ability to eat leaves from high tree branches). Natural selection is the impact that those behaviours have on the ability of the organisms to reproduce; this is usually interpreted as organisms living long enough to reproduce, but can also include time for offspring to mature, quantity of offspring per reproductive cycle, and other characteristics. If a given genetic change induces a characteristic that leads to a behaviour in a given environment that allows an organism to survive and/or reproduce better/faster, then over time that genetic change will become dominant in the overall population. For example, the long necks of giraffes lets them eat leaves of tall trees, that are inaccessible to other, short-necked herbivores, thus increasing the giraffe’s ability to access food compared to other animals. Natural Selection: Natural selection, as first coined by Charles Darwin, is a process by which characteristics that increase the likelihood of an organism's survival and successful reproduction in an environment become more commonplace within a population over successive generations. As an example, an increase in humankind's cognitive ability has allowed us to thrive as a species and thus natural selection over many generations of humans has seen an increase in our overall cognitive capacity, as compared to much earlier generations. A more straightforward example is the giraffe's neck, which evolved to give the giraffe the ability to reach vegetation no other footed animal could reach, thereby increasing its ability to survive.
Mutation: A mutation is a permanent change to the underlying genetic structure of an organism. Mutations can be beneficial or harmful, depending on whether it affects the organism's survival (per natural selection) positively or negatively. Mutations can be spontaneous or induced. A spontaneous mutation occurs as the result of a variation in the chemical processes of genetics, such as molecular decay occurring spontaneously during the life of an individual?. An induced mutation occurs in response to an external stimulus or phenomenon, such as exposure to nuclear radiation, prolonged change in nutritional intake, or an intended alteration by a designer.