bcgca3004b n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
BCGCA3004B PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
BCGCA3004B

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 386

BCGCA3004B - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 102 Views
  • Uploaded on

BCGCA3004B. Construct Wall Framing. Wall Framing. National Construction Code states that. What does this mean. NSW law has adopted the National Construction Code (NCC) as “Building Law” The “Building Law” says that the methods outline in AS 1684.2 will comply with this law.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'BCGCA3004B' - lisle


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
bcgca3004b

BCGCA3004B

Construct Wall Framing

wall framing
Wall Framing
  • National Construction Code states that
what does this mean
What does this mean
  • NSW law has adopted the National Construction Code (NCC) as “Building Law”
  • The “Building Law” says that the methods outline in AS 1684.2 will comply with this law.
  • So if you follow the methods outlined in AS 1684.2, unless otherwise stated you do not need any other design assistance e.g. Engineer etc.
as 1684 2 scope
AS 1684.2 Scope

Page 9 Section 1.1

as 1684 2 scope1
AS 1684.2 Scope

Page 9 Section 1.1

This means that this standard only applies the Residential Buildings (Class 1) or Garages & Carports (Class 10).

wall frame members
Wall Frame Members
  • Parts of a frame perform specific functions- supporting live & dead loads- resist Racking Forces- resist Overturning Forces- resist Sliding Forces- resist Uplift Forces -Most members provide a face to accept linings (this means that member sizes may be limited)
what is a timber frame
What is a Timber Frame
  • Structurally Connected Timber Members
  • Resist Forces
  • Forming a Wall Frame to meet requirements
    • Height
    • Load
      • Roof, Upper Levels etc
    • Openings
timbers generally used
Timbers Generally Used
  • Radiata Pine
      • F5
      • MGP 10
      • Higher Grades for Lintels etc.
  • Oregon
      • F5
  • Hardwood
    • Generally only used for Lintels etc.
  • Engineered Timbers
    • Generally only used for Lintels etc.
basic frame components
Basic Frame Components

Refer page 2 TAFE Guide

common stud
Common Stud
  • Main Vertical component of the wall
  • Transfer Loads from Top Plate to Bottom Plate
  • Accept wall finishes
    • Straightness will affect the quality
  • Accept fittings & Fixtures
    • Driers, Shelving etc.
common studs
Common Studs
  • Vertical members placed between the plates
  • The set the wall height
  • Studs in external frames resist Wind Loads
  • Generally Stud sizes are 90mm or 70mm wide by 45mm or 35mm in seasoned timbers and75mm or 100mm wide by 50mm or 38mm in seasoned timbers.
  • Required Stud sizes can be found in AS 1684.2 Supplements (which we will look at Shortly)
common studs1
Common Studs
  • May be Straightened to provide acceptable wall
  • Only 20% of Studs may be Straightened
  • Studs at sides of Openings & Supporting Concentrated Loads shall not be Crippled
confirmation of learning
Confirmation of Learning
  • On A4 page supplied draw & label an Isometric view showing the method of Crippling Studs
frame components
Frame Components
  • Common Studs
  • What Consideration For Selection
  • Determine Required Grade – Cost v Size, Usually MGP10
  • Level – Upper/Single or Lower
  • Select Correct Table – For member
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing– Applicable to Double Storey Only
  • Upper Floor Load Width – Applicable to Double Storey Only
  • Roof Material – Tile/Metal
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing – Roof Panel Width
  • Stud Spacing – How much of Roof Panel does it carry
  • Stud Height – The Taller a stud the less load it can carry
  • Roof Load Width – Roof Panel Length

Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

worked example determining studs
Worked Example Determining Studs
  • Refer to Supplied Plans
  • Determine minimum sizes of Studs
    • External Walls at rear (Single Storey Section)
      • At Point marked 1
    • External Walls at front (Two Storey Section)
      • At Point marked 2 (Lower Level)
      • At Point marked 3 (Upper Level)

Present this to your trainer for confirmation of Understanding and recording of completion of the task

slide25

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level –
  • Select Correct Table –
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing –
  • Upper Floor Load Width –
  • Roof Material –
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing –
  • Stud Spacing –
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide27

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table –
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing –
  • Upper Floor Load Width –
  • Roof Material –
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing –
  • Stud Spacing –
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide29

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing –
  • Upper Floor Load Width –
  • Roof Material –
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing –
  • Stud Spacing –
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide31

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing –N/A
  • Upper Floor Load Width – N/A
  • Roof Material –
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing –
  • Stud Spacing –
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide32

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing –N/A
  • Upper Floor Load Width – N/A
  • Roof Material – Tile Roof
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing –
  • Stud Spacing –
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide34

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing –N/A
  • Upper Floor Load Width – N/A
  • Roof Material – Tile Roof
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing – 600mm (This is determined when Roof is Designed)
  • Stud Spacing –
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide36

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing –N/A
  • Upper Floor Load Width – N/A
  • Roof Material – Tile Roof
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing – 600mm
  • Stud Spacing – 600mm (This is determined by linings, load etc)
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide38

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing –N/A
  • Upper Floor Load Width – N/A
  • Roof Material – Tile Roof
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing – 600mm
  • Stud Spacing – 600mm
  • Stud Height – 2700
  • Roof Load Width -
slide40

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single Level
  • Select Correct Table – Table 7 Studs Not Notched
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing – N/A
  • Upper Floor Load Width – N/A
  • Roof Material – Tile Roof
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing – 600mm
  • Stud Spacing – 600mm
  • Stud Height - 2700
  • Roof Load Width - 5400
slide42

Select the best

For the Situation

70 x 35

Most Suitable 75mm

Most Suitable 90mm

slide45

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level –
  • Select Correct Table –
  • Roof Material –
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing –
  • Upper Floor Load Width –
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing –
  • Stud Spacing –
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide47

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Lower Level
  • Select Correct Table –
  • Roof Material –
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing –
  • Upper Floor Load Width –
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing –
  • Stud Spacing –
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide49

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Lower Level
  • Select Correct Table – Table 36 Studs Not Notched
  • Roof Material –
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing –
  • Upper Floor Load Width –
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing –
  • Stud Spacing –
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide51

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Lower Level
  • Select Correct Table – Table 36 Studs Not Notched
  • Roof Material – Tile Roof
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing–
  • Upper Floor Load Width –
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing –
  • Stud Spacing –
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide53

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Lower Level
  • Select Correct Table – Table 36 Studs Not Notched
  • Roof Material – Tile Roof
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing – 600mm
  • Upper Floor Load Width –
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing –
  • Stud Spacing –
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide55

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Lower Level
  • Select Correct Table – Table 36 Studs Not Notched
  • Roof Material – Tile Roof
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing – 600mm
  • Upper Floor Load Width – 3000mm
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing –
  • Stud Spacing –
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide57

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Lower Level
  • Select Correct Table – Table 36 Studs Not Notched
  • Roof Material – Tile Roof
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing – 600mm
  • Upper Floor Load Width – 3000mm
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing – N/A as load is dissipated by 1st Floor
  • Stud Spacing –
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide58

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Lower Level
  • Select Correct Table – Table 36 Studs Not Notched
  • Roof Material – Tile Roof
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing – 600mm
  • Upper Floor Load Width – 3000mm
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing – N/A
  • Stud Spacing – 600mm
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Load Width -
slide60

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Lower Level
  • Select Correct Table – Table 36 Studs Not Notched
  • Roof Material – Tile Roof
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing – 600mm
  • Upper Floor Load Width – 3000mm
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing – N/A
  • Stud Spacing – 600mm
  • Stud Height – 2700mm
  • Roof Load Width -
slide62

To Determine Studs – Answer the Questions

  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Lower Level
  • Select Correct Table – Table 36 Studs Not Notched
  • Roof Material – Tile Roof
  • Upper Floor Joist Spacing – 600mm
  • Upper Floor Load Width – 3000mm
  • Rafter/Truss Spacing – N/A
  • Stud Spacing – 600mm
  • Stud Height – 2700mm
  • Roof Load Width – 3800mm
slide63

Most Suitable 75mm

Most Suitable 90mm

confirmation of learning1
Confirmation of Learning
  • Refer to Supplied Plans
  • Trainer to Provide
    • Rafter/Truss Spacing
    • Stud Spacing
    • Roof Load Width = ½ Span ÷ Cos (Pitch°)
  • Determine minimum sizes of Studs
    • External Walls at rear (Single Storey Section)
      • At Point marked 1
    • External Walls at front (Two Storey Section)
      • At Point marked 2 (Lower Level)
      • At Point marked 3 (Upper Level)
basic frame components1
Basic Frame Components

Refer page 2 TAFE Guide

jamb studs
Jamb Studs
  • Additional Studs placed at sides of Openings in walls carrying structural loads
  • Accommodate extra loads imposed by Lintels
jamb studs housing
Jamb Studs - Housing

Why Bother

2/75 x 3.8mm is more than enough

Housings not allowed in Load Bearing Walls

frame components1
Frame Components
  • Jamb Studs
  • What Consideration For Selection
  • Determine Required Grade – Cost v Size.
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Is it taking 1st Floor Load.
  • Select Correct Table – Common, Jamb or Concentrated Loads Studs.
  • Upper Floor Load Width – Floor Load Panel Length (Only Applies to 2 Storey).
  • Roof Material – Tile or Metal Roof
  • Roof Load Width – Roof Load Panel Length
  • Lintel Span – Opening being Spanned
  • Stud Height – Taller Stud has less ability to carry load.

Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

frame components2
Frame Components
  • Jamb Studs
  • What Consideration For Selection
  • Determine Required Grade – MGP10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table – Table 11
  • Upper Floor Load Width – N/A
  • Roof Material – Tile
  • Roof Load Width –
  • Lintel Span –
  • Stud Height –

Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

frame components3
Frame Components
  • Jamb Studs
  • What Consideration For Selection
  • Determine Required Grade – MGP10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table – Table 11
  • Upper Floor Load Width – N/A
  • Roof Material – Tile
  • Roof Load Width – 5400
  • Lintel Span –
  • Stud Height –

Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

frame components4
Frame Components
  • Jamb Studs
  • What Consideration For Selection
  • Determine Required Grade – MGP10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table – Table 11
  • Upper Floor Load Width – N/A
  • Roof Material – Tile
  • Roof Load Width – 5400
  • Stud Height – 2700
  • Lintel Span –

Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

frame components5
Frame Components
  • Jamb Studs
  • What Consideration For Selection
  • Determine Required Grade – MGP10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table – Table 11
  • Upper Floor Load Width – N/A
  • Roof Material – Tile
  • Roof Load Width – 5400
  • Stud Height – 2700
  • Lintel Span – 1900

Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

slide78

Most Suitable for 70mm

Most Suitable for 90mm

studs for concentrated loads see page 67 as 1684 2 2006
Studs for Concentrated LoadsSeePage 67 - AS 1684.2 - 2006
  • Point Load from Beam etc. that gathers load from other structural members
studs for concentrated loads see page 67 as 1684 2 20061
Studs for Concentrated LoadsSeePage 67 - AS 1684.2 - 2006
  • Point Load from Beam etc. that gathers load from other structural members
  • Beams etc. > 3000mm that take loads from
    • Strutting Beams
    • Roof Struts
    • Girder Trusses or
    • Hanging Beams
frame components6
Frame Components
  • Studs Supporting Concentrated Loads`
  • What Consideration For Selection
  • Determine Required Grade – Cost v Size.
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Is it taking 1st Floor Load.
  • Select Correct Table – Common, Jamb or Concentrated Loads Studs.
  • Upper Floor Load Width – Floor Load Panel Length (Only Applies to 2 Storey).
  • Roof Material – Tile or Metal Roof
  • Stud Height – Taller Stud has less ability to carry load.
  • Roof Area Supported – Roof Load Imposed

Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

frame components7
Frame Components
  • Studs Supporting Concentrated Loads`
  • What Consideration For Selection
  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table – Table 9
  • Upper Floor Load Width – N/A
  • Roof Material – Tile
  • Stud Height –
  • Roof Area Supported –

Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

frame components8
Frame Components
  • Studs Supporting Concentrated Loads`
  • What Consideration For Selection
  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table – Table 9
  • Upper Floor Load Width – N/A
  • Roof Material – Tile
  • Stud Height – 2700
  • Roof Area Supported –

Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

frame components9
Frame Components
  • Studs Supporting Concentrated Loads`
  • What Consideration For Selection
  • Determine Required Grade – MGP 10
  • Upper or Single Level) or Lower Level – Single
  • Select Correct Table – Table 9
  • Upper Floor Load Width – N/A
  • Roof Material – Tile
  • Stud Height – 2700
  • Roof Area Supported – (4.150 x 5.400) ÷ 4 = 5.6m2

= 4.150

= 5.400

Note – Dimensions are in metres

studs supporting concentrated loads
Studs supporting concentrated Loads
  • It is important that you develop the ability to recognise the location of Concentrated Loads
  • This will allow you to install the required studs while manufacturing the frames
discuss concept of pattern stud
Discuss Concept of Pattern Stud
  • Common Studs
  • Lintel Positions
  • Trimmers
basic frame components2
Basic Frame Components

Refer page 2 TAFE Guide

frame components10
Frame Components
  • Bottom Plate
  • Horizontal member that form the bottom of the frame.
  • Bottom plate must run full length of wall, except at openings (cl 6.2.2)
  • Bottom plates are joined with butt joints with fixing near the joint
  • Joints must be fully supported
frame components11
Frame Components
  • Bottom Plate
  • Horizontal member that form the bottom of the frame.
  • Bottom plate must run full length of wall, except at openings (cl 6.2.2)
  • Bottom plates are joined with butt joints with fixing near the joint
  • Joints must be fully supported
  • Where the Bottom Plate Supports a concentrated Load or Jamb Studs to openings > 1200, the bottom plate must be fully supported
frame components12
Frame Components
  • Bottom Plate
  • Sizing
  • Bottom plate sizing is dependent on its span
    • If it is fully supported (e.g. Concrete Slab) only nominal 35mm thickness required for any structural grade (cl 6.3.3)
    • Items to consider when determining the size of Bottom Plate are listed in the span tables where you make the selections. (page 1 & 2 of Handout)
    • Timber Grade – Strength of Timber
    • Joist Spacing – Means greater span
    • Loading – Load that is to be disturbed through structure
      • Is it a tiled roof, Is it the lower level of a 2 storey building
    • Rafter/Joist Spacing – More load concentrated at studs once distributed.

Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

worked example
Worked Example
  • Roof Material Sheet Roof
  • Rafter / Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Joist Spacing 450mm
  • Roof Load Width 6000mm
worked example1
Worked Example
  • Roof Material Sheet Roof
  • Rafter / Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Joist Spacing 450mm
  • Roof Load Width 6000mm
worked example2
Worked Example
  • Roof Material Sheet Roof
  • Rafter / Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Joist Spacing 450mm
  • Roof Load Width 6000mm
worked example3
Worked Example
  • Roof Material Sheet Roof
  • Rafter / Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Joist Spacing 450mm
  • Roof Load Width 6000mm
slide104

Select most

Suitable

worked example4
Worked Example
  • Roof Material Sheet Roof
  • Rafter / Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Joist Spacing 450mm
  • Roof Load Width 6000mm
slide106

v

70 x 45

Or

90 x 45

confirmation of learning2
Confirmation of Learning
  • Determine Minimum Member Size Based on Following Data
  • (Conventional Floor System)
  • Roof Load Width 4100mm
  • Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Joist Spacing 450mm
  • Stud 90mm Wide
  • Roof Material Tile
  • Minimum Size ______________________
  • Determine Minimum Member Size Based on Following Data
  • (Concrete Slab)
  • Roof Load Width 4100mm
  • Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Joist Spacing N/A
  • Stud 70mm Wide
  • Roof Material Tile
  • Minimum Size ______________________
confirmation of learning answer
Confirmation of Learning - Answer
  • Determine Minimum Member Size Based on Following Data
  • (Conventional Floor System)
  • Roof Load Width 4100mm
  • Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Joist Spacing 450mm
  • Stud 90mm Wide
  • Roof Material Tile
  • Minimum Size 90 x 45
  • Determine Minimum Member Size Based on Following Data
  • (Concrete Slab)
  • Roof Load Width 4100mm
  • Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Joist Spacing N/A
  • Stud 70mm Wide
  • Roof Material Tile
  • Minimum Size 70 x 35 (Nominal as Fully Supported)
basic frame components3
Basic Frame Components

Refer page 2 TAFE Guide

top plate
Top Plate
  • An Important Structural Member
  • Provides Lateral tie to the Building
top plate1
Top Plate
  • An Important Structural Member
  • Provides Lateral tie to the Building
  • Provides a transition point for the connection of Roofing Members and distribution of loads
  • A Component of the Bracing System
top plate2
Top Plate
  • An Important Structural Member
  • Provides Lateral tie to the Building
  • Provides a transition point for the connection of Roofing Members and distribution of loads
  • A Component of the Bracing System
  • A component of the uplift restraint system
top plate3
Top Plate
  • To Plates must run full length of the wall
  • Top Plate must run over openings
  • Concentrated Loads must be Fully Supported
frame components13
Frame Components
  • To Plate
  • Sizing
  • Top plate sizing is dependent (See pages 3 to 6 of Handout)
    • Positioning of Rafter/Truss (See next Slide)
    • Upper or Lower Level (Pages 3 & 4 v Pages 5 & 6)
    • Timber Grade – Strength of Timber
    • Roof Material – Tile v Metal
    • Rafter/Truss Spacing– How & Where the Load is applied
    • Stud Spacing – How much bending will be caused by Rafters
    • Roof Load Width - How wide is the Building (see next slide)

Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

frame components14
Frame Components
  • To Plate
  • Sizing
  • Top plate sizing is dependent (See pages 3 to 6 of Handout)
  • (Pages 3 & 4 v Pages 5 & 6)
    • Timber Grade – Strength of Timber
    • Location – Single Level , Upper Level or Lower of 2 Storey
    • Roof Material – Tile v Metal
    • Rafter/Truss Spacing– How & Where the Load is applied
    • Tie Down Spacing – Bending imposed on Top Plate by Uplift
    • Stud Spacing – How much bending will be caused by Rafters
    • Roof Load Width - How wide is the Building (see next slide)
worked example5
Worked Example
  • Roof Material Sheet Roof
  • Location Single Storey
  • Rafter / Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Tie Down Spacing 600mm
  • Stud Spacing 450mm
  • Roof Load Width 6000mm
worked example6
Worked Example
  • Roof Material Sheet Roof
  • Location Single Storey
  • Rafter / Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Tie Down Spacing 600mm
  • Stud Spacing 450mm
  • Roof Load Width 6000mm
worked example7
Worked Example
  • Roof Material Sheet Roof
  • Location Single Storey
  • Rafter / Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Tie Down Spacing 600mm
  • Stud Spacing 450mm
  • Roof Load Width 6000mm
worked example8
Worked Example
  • Roof Material Sheet Roof
  • Location Single Storey
  • Rafter / Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Tie Down Spacing 600mm
  • Stud Spacing 450mm
  • Roof Load Width 6000mm
worked example9
Worked Example
  • Roof Material Sheet Roof
  • Location Single Storey
  • Rafter / Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Tie Down Spacing 600mm
  • Stud Spacing 450mm
  • Roof Load Width 6000mm
worked example10
Worked Example
  • Roof Material Sheet Roof
  • Location Single Storey
  • Rafter / Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Tie Down Spacing 0
  • Stud Spacing 450mm
  • Roof Load Width 6000mm
slide126

70 x 45

90 x 45

confirmation of learning3
Confirmation of Learning
  • Determine Minimum Member Size Based on Following Data
  • Roof Material Sheet Roof
  • Location Single Storey
  • Rafter / Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Tie Down Spacing 0
  • Stud Spacing 600mm
  • Roof Load Width 5500mm
  • Wall Frame Width 70mm
  • Minimum Size ______________________
confirmation of learning answer1
Confirmation of Learning - Answer
  • Determine Minimum Member Size Based on Following Data
  • Roof Material Sheet Roof
  • Location Single Storey
  • Rafter / Truss Spacing 600mm
  • Tie Down Spacing 0
  • Stud Spacing 600mm
  • Roof Load Width 5500mm
  • Wall Frame Width 70mm
  • Minimum Size 70 x 45
plates
Plates
  • Seasoned timbers are dressed therefore trenching not required
  • Rough Sawn Timbers such as Oregon, Hardwood require trenching.
  • Housing of plates for studs provides a constant thickness
  • Trenching keeps Top & Bottom plates parallel
  • Restrains Unseasoned Studs from twisting
slide132

Trenching usually appox 10 mm

  • Trenching depth is not critical but what is left on is.
  • Top Plates fully supported on masonary walls will be sized based on a 300mm spacing
joining of plates
Joining of Plates
  • Where plates are butt jointed they may be joined using a connector plate.
joining of plates1
Joining of Plates
  • Plates may be Scarfed or Lapped jointed.
  • Theses are time consuming and rarely used
calculate plate lengths
Calculate Plate Lengths
  • During Fabrication Top & Bottom Plates are the same length
  • Plates should be as long as possible
  • Consider manpower available to stand frames
  • Remember Top Plate must be continuous
roof load width
Roof Load Width

AS 1684 - Definition

roof load width1
Roof Load Width

Why is it an Important Consideration?

roof load width2
Roof Load Width

Why is it an Important Consideration?

Compare if Y= 5m & b = 0.6m

roof load width3
Roof Load Width

Why is it an Important Consideration?

The Top Plate in the Top example is taking more load

B = 5 + 5 + 0.6

2

= 5.6m

Compare if Y= 5m & b = 0.6m

B = 5 + 0.6

6

= 1.433m

uplift
Uplift
  • Uplift is a complex item and dealt with at Cert IV level
  • Generally in Sydney for a Tile Roof it is not a consideration (See next slide) except for;
    • Ocean Front
    • Top of a Hill
    • Isolated Buildings with no wind shielding
basic frame components4
Basic Frame Components

Refer page 2 TAFE Guide

lintels
Lintels
  • Also referred to as a Head when it is not supporting Structural Loads
  • Horizontal Load Bearing Member between Studs
  • Purpose is to transfer structural loads that are above an opening to load bearing studs
  • May be made of many materials- Timber- Engineered Timbers - LVL’s, I Beams- Structural Steel or Cold Rolled Steel Sections
lintels installation requirements
Lintels – Installation Requirements

AS 1684 Figure 6.9 page 64

lintels installation requirements1
Lintels – Installation Requirements

AS 1684 Figure 6.9 page 64

lintels installation requirements2
Lintels – Installation Requirements

AS 1684 Figure 6.9 page 64

lintels installation requirements3
Lintels – Installation Requirements

AS 1684 Figure 6.9 page 64

slide148

From experience this is my preferred method as if there is

A change in size or height, it does not require a major alteration

It is a simple change of the infill head.

lintels requirement for top plate
Lintels – Requirement for Top Plate

Top Plate must be

Continuous

The Top Plate CANNOT be cut

To fit a Lintel

frame components15
Frame Components
  • Lintel
  • Sizing
  • Lintel sizing is dependent (See pages 9 & 10 of Handout)
    • Timber Grade – Strength of Timber
    • Roof Material – Tile v Metal
    • Location – Upper,Single or Lower Level of 2 Storey
    • Floor Load Width– Applicable to Lowers Storey of 2 Storey Only
    • Roof Load Width - How wide is the Building
    • Rafter Truss Spacing – Loading on Beam
    • Lintel Span – Required Span

Span Tables supplied – Identify Part

worked example11
Worked Example
  • Timber Grade – MGP10
  • Roof Material – Tile
  • Location – Single Level
  • Floor Load Width–
  • Roof Load Width –
  • Rafter Truss Spacing –
  • Lintel Span –
worked example12
Worked Example
  • Timber Grade – MGP10
  • Roof Material – Tile
  • Location – Single Level
  • Floor Load Width– N/A
  • Roof Load Width – 3500mm
  • Rafter Truss Spacing –
  • Lintel Span –
worked example13
Worked Example
  • Timber Grade – MGP10
  • Roof Material – Tile
  • Location – Single Level
  • Floor Load Width– N/A
  • Roof Load Width – 3500mm
  • Rafter Truss Spacing – 600mm
  • Lintel Span –
worked example14
Worked Example
  • Timber Grade – MGP10
  • Roof Material – Tile
  • Location – Single Level
  • Floor Load Width– N/A
  • Roof Load Width – 3500mm
  • Rafter Truss Spacing – 600mm
  • Lintel Span – 2100mm
6 noggins1
6. Noggins
  • Stop Studs from Twisting, Cupping etc
  • Assist Studs to take load – prevent buckling under load
  • Form Part of Bracing System
6 noggins2
6.Noggins
  • Walls > 1350mm in height must have noggins
  • Max Spacing between rows = 1350mm
  • No Stress grading required
  • Min 25mm Thick
  • Noggins may be offset 2 x Thickness to allow for ease of Installation
  • Min width = Wall Thickness – 25mm
confirmation of learning4
Confirmation of Learning
  • How many Rows of Noggins are required for following wall heights.
    • 2550
    • 3000
    • 3800
  • Is a 70 x 35 Noggin suitable for a 90mm Wall Frame
6 bracing
6. Bracing
  • Member that prevents distortion of frame by
    • Racking Forces

You must determine

Wind load on Building

bracing1
Bracing
  • There are many materials that can be used to Brace a wall frame.
  • These generally form part of a system.
  • See page 4 of TAFE Notes
diagonal timber bracing
Diagonal Timber Bracing
  • Rarely Used Today.
diamond bracing
Diamond Bracing
  • Not Mentioned in AS 1684.2.
  • Must be Considered an Alternative Solution.
  • Would require an Engineer to Certify.
perforated metal angle
Perforated Metal Angle

Where there a 2 in a wall,

They should oppose each other

hoop iron cross bracing
Hoop Iron Cross Bracing

A very good and efficient method and should be 1st choice

hoop iron cross bracing1
Hoop Iron Cross Bracing

Tensioning should be done during the hottest part of the day

hoop iron cross bracing2
Hoop Iron Cross Bracing

Final Nailing off should be done as late as possible

Leave temporary bracing as long as possible

sheet bracing
Sheet Bracing
  • Plywood or Hardboard (Masonite)
6 bracing1
6. Bracing
  • Member that prevents distortion of frame by
    • Racking Forces
    • Section 8 of Standard
a determine wind classification1
(a) Determine Wind Classification
  • AS 4055 Outline the Process to Determine
  • Geographic Wind Speed
  • Terrain Category
  • Topographic Class
  • Shielding
a determine wind classification2
(a) Determine Wind Classification
  • AS 4055 Outline the Process to Determine
  • Geographic Wind Region
  • Terrain Category
  • Topographic Class
  • Shielding
exercise
Exercise
  • What Region are the following Cities or towns located in
    • Sydney ______________
    • Brisbane ______________
    • Melbourne ______________
    • Darwin ______________
    • Perth ______________
    • Grafton (NSW) ______________
    • Townsville (Qld) ______________
    • Alice Springs (NT) ______________
    • Perisher Valley (NSW) ______________
    • Launceston (TAS) ______________
    • Port Hedland (WA) ______________
exercise answer
Exercise - Answer
  • What Region are the following Cities or towns located in
    • Sydney A
    • Brisbane B
    • Melbourne A
    • Darwin C
    • Perth A
    • Grafton (NSW) B
    • Townsville (Qld) C
    • Alice Springs (NT) A
    • Perisher Valley (NSW) A
    • Launceston (TAS) A
    • Port Hedland (WA) D
a determine wind classification3
(a) Determine Wind Classification
  • AS 4055 Outline the Process to Determine
  • Geographic Wind Speed
  • Terrain Category
  • Topographic Class
  • Shielding
exercise1
Exercise
  • Determine The Follow Terrain Categories
  • An Isolated House at Woomera with no significant Topographical features for 15km in all directions. Classification_________________
  • A House at Bronte located on the Ocean Front.

Classification _________________

  • House Build adjacent to Richmond Air force Base

Classification _________________

  • A house in Alexandria (NSW)

Classification _________________

exercise answer1
Exercise - Answer
  • Determine The Follow Terrain Categories
  • An Isolated House at Woomera with no significant Topographical features for 15km in all directions. ClassificationTC1
  • A House at Bronte located on the Ocean Front.

ClassificationTC2

  • House Build adjacent to Richmond Air force Base

ClassificationTC2

  • A house in Alexandria (NSW)

ClassificationTC3

a determine wind classification4
(a) Determine Wind Classification
  • AS 4055 Outline the Process to Determine
  • Geographic Wind Speed
  • Terrain Category
  • Topographic Class
  • Shielding
3 topographic class
3. Topographic Class

Topographic class determines the effect of wind on a house considering its location on a,

  • hill,
  • ridge or escarpment and
  • the height and average slope of the hill, ridge or escarpment.
3 topographic class1
3. Topographic Class

Where average slope is

Greater than 1 in 20 is the

Start of the “Hill” .

3 topographic class2
3. Topographic Class

Height of Hill.

3 topographic class3
3. Topographic Class

Height of Hill.

Note Parameter for Escarpment

3 topographic class4
3.Topographic Class

AS 4055 - 2006

determine average slope
Determine Average Slope

The average slope of a hill, ridge or escarpment (φa) shall be the slope measured by

averaging the steepest slope and the least slope through the top half of the hill, ridge or

escarpment.

as 4055 table 2 3 row 1
AS 4055 - Table 2.3 Row 1

Average Slope < 1 in 10

T1

T1

All Heights

T1

as 4055 table 2 3 row 2
AS 4055 - Table 2.3 Row 2

Average Slope < 1 in 10

& > 1 in 7.5

T2*

T1

T1

*Less than 20m all T1

as 4055 table 2 3 row 3
AS 4055 - Table 2.3 Row 3

Average Slope < 1 in 7.5

& > 1 in 5

*H > 30 T3

*H ≤ 30 T2

T1

T1

*Less than 9m all T1

as 4055 table 2 3 row 4
AS 4055 - Table 2.3 Row 4

Average Slope < 1 in 5

& > 1 in 3

H > 30 T4

H ≤ 30 T3

T2

H

T1

as 4055 table 2 3 row 5
AS 4055 - Table 2.3 Row 5

Average Slope > 1 in 3

H > 30 T5

H ≤ 30 T4

T2

H

T1

3 topographic class5
3.Topographic Class

AS 4055 - 2006

determine average slope1
Determine Average Slope

The average slope of a hill, ridge or escarpment (φa) shall be the slope measured by

averaging the steepest slope and the least slope through the top half of the hill, ridge or

escarpment.

as 4055 table 2 3 row 11
AS 4055 - Table 2.3 Row 1

Average Slope < 1 in 10

T1

T1

T1

All Heights

T1

as 4055 table 2 3 row 21
AS 4055 - Table 2.3 Row 2

Average Slope < 1 in 10

& > 1 in 7.5

*T2

T1

T1

T1

*Less than 20m all T1

as 4055 table 2 3 row 31
AS 4055 - Table 2.3 Row 3

Average Slope < 1 in 7.5

& > 1 in 5

*H > 30 T3

*H ≤ 30 T2

T1

T1

T1

*Less than 9m all T1

as 4055 table 2 3 row 41
AS 4055 - Table 2.3 Row 4

Average Slope < 1 in 5

& > 1 in 3

H > 30 T4

H ≤ 30 T3

T2

H

T2

T1

as 4055 table 2 3 row 51
AS 4055 - Table 2.3 Row 5

Average Slope > 1 in 3

H > 30 T5

H ≤ 30 T4

T3

H

T2

T1

worked example15
Worked Example

For Our Purposes in this course we will always use T1

You will go into more detail in the CERT IV Course

a determine wind classification5
(a) Determine Wind Classification
  • AS 4055 Outline the Process to Determine
  • Geographic Wind Speed
  • Terrain Category
  • Topographic Class
  • Shielding
4 shielding
4.Shielding
  • The affect of local obstructions on wind flow
  • The 5 year likely impact must be considered
    • Growth of Trees etc.
    • Proposed Developments etc.
  • Classes
    • Full Shielding (FS)
    • Partial Shielding (PS)
    • No Shielding (NS)
full shielding fs
Full Shielding (FS)
  • Surrounded by 2 Rows of Houses
  • Heavily Wooded Areas (Zones A & B Only)
  • Typical Suburb consisting of 10 houses per Ha
  • Roads or Parks less than 100m wide are ignored
partial shielding ps
Partial Shielding (PS)
  • 2.5 Houses, Trees, Sheds etc. per Ha
  • In Regions C & D heavily wooded areas
no shielding ns
No Shielding (NS)
  • No Permanent Obstructions
  • Less than 2.5 obstructions per Ha
  • First 2 Rows abutting Open Parkland, Open Water, Airfield etc.
worked example16
Worked Example

TAFE

UNI

Randwick Town Centre

worked example17
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
worked example18
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T1

House is not

On a hill

worked example19
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T1
  • ShieldingFS

Shielded by 2 Rows of Houses

worked example20
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T1
  • Shielding FS
  • Terrain Category TC 3
worked example21
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T1
  • Shielding FS
  • Terrain Category TC 3
worked example22
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T1
  • Shielding FS
  • Terrain Category TC 3
worked example23
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T1
  • Shielding FS
  • Terrain Category TC 3
worked example24
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T1
  • ShieldingFS
  • Terrain Category TC 3

Wind Category is N1

worked example25
Worked Example

Bronte Ocean Front

worked example26
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
worked example27
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T5

House is located on top

Of 30m escarpment

worked example28
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T5
  • ShieldingNS

No Shielding on Ocean Side – You must always use worst case example

worked example29
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T5
  • Shielding NS
  • Terrain CategoryTC1
worked example30
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T5
  • Shielding NS
  • Terrain Category TC1
worked example31
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T5
  • Shielding NS
  • Terrain Category TC1
worked example32
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T5
  • Shielding NS
  • Terrain Category TC1
worked example33
Worked Example
  • Geographic Wind Region Region A
  • Topography T5
  • Shielding NS
  • Terrain Category TC1

Wind Category = N5

determine wind pressure
Determine Wind Pressure
  • Determined by;
    • Wind Classification
    • Tables 8.1 to 8.5 AS 1684.2
    • Is dependant on the shape of the Building

Is it a Gable or Hip or a more Complex shape? – Explained in Next Slides

area of elevation
Area of Elevation

Table 8.2

h = ½ height of the wall (half of the floor to ceiling height).

For wind direction 2, the pressure on the gable end is determined from Table 8.1

pressure on the hip section of the elevation is determined from Table 8.2.

The total of racking forces is the sum of the forces calculated for each section.

Eaves < 1m2 can be ignored.

Table 8.1

Table 8.2

Table 8.2

Table 8.2

area of elevation1
Area of Elevation

11000

You must determine

Area of each part of the

elevation Of the Building.

7000

15000

6000

8000

5000

area of elevation2
Area of Elevation

Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes

1.1 = 14m2

1.2 = 16m2

2

1

Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes

1.1 = 14m2

1.2 = 14m2

2

1

d calculating racking force
(d) Calculating Racking Force
  • Formula
  • Area of Elevation x Wind Pressure
  • Required Data
  • Pitch = 30°
d calculating racking force1
(d) Calculating Racking Force

Racking Force = Area x Wind Pressue

Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes

1.1 = 14m2 x Wind Pressure ?

1.2 = 16m2

2

1

6000

5000

Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes

1.1 = 14m2

1.2 = 14m2

2

1

d calculating racking force2
(d) Calculating Racking Force

Racking Force = Area x Wind Pressue

Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes

1.1 = 14m2 x 0.75 = 10.5

1.2 = 16m2 xWind Pressure ?

2

1

6000

5000

Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes

1.1 = 14m2

1.2 = 14m2

2

1

d calculating racking force3
(d) Calculating Racking Force

Racking Force = Area x Wind Pressue

Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes

1.1 = 14m2 x 0.75 = 10.5

1.2 = 16m2 x 0.74 = 11.84

Total Racking Force = 22.34

2

1

6000

5000

Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes

1.1 = 14m2 xWind Pressure ?

1.2 = 14m2

2

1

8000

7000

important note
Important Note

Which Wind Pressure to Use ?

Wind N2

Pitch 25°

8 000

15 000

As shape is the same from both directions

We use the same Table (8.2)

important note1
Important Note

Which Wind Pressure to Use ?

Wind N2

Pitch 25°

8 000

Table 8.1

Table 8.2

15 000

As shape is different in each elevation we must determine individually for each direction

And use WORST case.

important note2
Important Note

Which Wind Pressure to Use ?

Wind N2

The Gable End will ALWAYS have the highest pressure

Pitch 25°

8 000

Table 8.1

= 0.92

Table 8.2

= 0.71

15 000

As the worst case is the Gable End, we must use the wind Pressure from Table 8.1 = 0.92

d calculating racking force revisited
(d) Calculating Racking Force - Revisited

Racking Force = Area x Wind Pressue

Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes

1.1 = 14m2 x 0.75 = 10.5

1.2 = 16m2 x 0.74 = 11.84

Total Racking Force = 22.34

2

1

6000

5000

Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes

1.1 = 14m2 xWind Pressure ?

1.2 = 14m2

2

1

wind pressure direction 1 21
Wind Pressure Direction 1.2

You must use this table as it is a Gable End

d calculating racking force4
(d) Calculating Racking Force

Racking Force = Area x Wind Pressue

Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes

1.1 = 14m2 x 0.75 = 10.5

1.2 = 16m2 x 0.74 = 11.84

Total Racking Force = 22.34

2

1

6000

5000

Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes

2.1 = 14m2 x0.92 = 12.88

2.2 = 14m2 xWind Pressure ?

2

1

8000

7000

d calculating racking force5
(d) Calculating Racking Force

Racking Force = Area x Wind Pressue

Wind Direction 1 has 2 Shapes

1.1 = 14m2 x 0.75 = 10.5

1.2 = 16m2 x 0.74 = 11.84

Total Racking Force = 22.34

2

1

6000

5000

Wind Direction 2 has 2 Shapes

2.1 = 14m2 x0.92 = 12.88

2.2 = 14m2 x0.72 = 10.08

Total Racking Force = 22.96

2

1

8000

7000

clause 8 3 6 6
Clause 8.3.6.6

We must start placing Bracing at,

External Walls &

At Corners

clause 8 3 6 7
Clause 8.3.6.7

Single or Upper Level Bracing

Max Spacing is 9m for N2 & N2 Wind Classification

For N3 & above refer Tables

table 8 18
Table 8.18
  • List Types of Bracing Systems that are “Deemed to Satisfy”
  • Gives a value per/m length of Bracing Panel
  • Theses values are used to counteract the Racking Forces calculated.
design
Design

Wind Direction 1.1

Racking Force = 10.5

Wind Direction 1.2

Racking Force = 11.84

3500

Wind Direction 2.1

Racking Force = 12.88

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

Wind Direction 2.2

Racking Force = 10.08

8000

3000

5000

design area 1 1
Design – Area 1.1

Wind Direction 1.1

Racking Force = 10.5

3500

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

8000

3000

5000

design area 1 11
Design – Area 1.1

Wind Direction 1.1

Racking Force = 10.5

Metal Cross Strapping to Corners

As per Table 8.14 (b)

3500

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

Note you must do all corners

Regardless of Overkill

8000

3000

5000

design area 1 12
Design – Area 1.1

Wind Direction 1.1

Racking Force = 10.5

Metal Cross Strapping to Corners

As per Table 8.14 (b)

3500

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

You Still would place

Bracing on Internal Walls

To assist During Constructions

Using any Method (a) is easiest

8000

3000

5000

design area 1 13
Design – Area 1.1

Wind Direction 1.1

Racking Force = 10.5

Metal Cross Strapping to Corners

As per Table 8.14 (b)

3500

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

You Still would place

Bracing on Internal Walls

To assist During Constructions

Using any Method (a) is easiest

8000

3000

5000

design area 1 2
Design – Area 1.2

Wind Direction 1.2

Racking Force = 11.84

3500

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

8000

3000

5000

design area 1 21
Design – Area 1.2

Wind Direction 1.2

Racking Force = 11.84

3500

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

8000

Metal Cross Strapping to Corners

As per Table 8.14 (b)

3000

5000

design area 1 22
Design – Area 1.2

Wind Direction 1.2

Racking Force = 11.84

3500

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

Bracing to Internal Walls to

Spread Bracing thru Structure

Assist During Construction

8000

3000

5000

design area 2 1
Design – Area 2.1

3500

Wind Direction 2.1

Racking Force = 12.88

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

8000

3000

5000

design area 2 11
Design – Area 2.1

3500

Wind Direction 2.1

Racking Force = 12.88

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

8000

Metal Cross Strapping to Corners

As per Table 8.14 (b)

3000

5000

design area 2 12
Design – Area 2.1

3500

Wind Direction 2.1

Racking Force = 12.88

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

Bracing to Internal Walls to

Spread Bracing thru Structure

Assist During Construction

8000

3000

5000

design area 2 2
Design – Area 2.2

3500

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

Wind Direction 2.2

Racking Force = 10.08

8000

3000

5000

design area 2 21
Design – Area 2.2

3500

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

Wind Direction 2.2

Racking Force = 10.08

8000

3000

5000

design area 2 22
Design – Area 2.2

3500

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

8000

Bracing to Internal Walls to

Spread Bracing thru Structure

Assist During Construction

3000

5000

clause 8 3 6 9
Clause 8.3.6.9
  • Top of INTERNAL Bracing Walls must be fixed to Ceiling or Upper Floor Structure with equivalent Shear Capacity as to its Bracing Capacity
confirmation learning
Confirmation Learning
  • Complete Exercise 42 of your workbook
connection of internal brace walls
Connection of Internal Brace Walls

In our Exercise we use Crossed Hoop Iron

3500

7000

3500

4500

6000

3000

Bracing Value = 1.5

Bracing Panel Length = 2.7

Total Force = 1.5 x 2.7

= 4.05kN

8000

3000

5000

slide312

Total Force = 4.05kN

Seasoned Radiata Pine = JD4

1 Fixing at each end of Bracing Panel

= 2 x 2.1kN

= 4.2 (Sufficient)

wall frames
Wall Frames
  • Frames are classified into 2 categories
  • Load Bearing – They are structural frames, they transfer loads from roof or upper floor to the supporting floor frame. They can be either external or internal walls.
  • Non Load Bearing –- do not support any structural loads.- They support their own weight- Non structural loads doors and frame, kitchen cupboards, driers etc. - support some live loads eg Doors closing. Therefore there are some minimum requirements for these AS 1684.2 cl 6.3.5
trimmers
Trimmers
  • Horizontal members fixed between window studs and door studs.
  • Referred to as Sill or Head trimmers
  • Usually of the same section size bottom plates
  • Openings wider than 1800mm require trimmers as specified in AS 1684.2 cl6.3.6.6 & table 6.3
trimmers1
Trimmers

Refer Table 6.3 of your Australian Standard

trimming studs
Trimming Studs
  • Run from Trimmers to Plates – Use same Timber Size
  • Used to block out Narrow Lintel
  • Where use in conjunction with Lintel they may take structural loads
  • Must be same depth as wall frame to accept finishes
  • May also be referred to as “Jack”, “Soldier”, or “Short” studs
wall intersections blocking
Wall Intersections Blocking
  • Placed at intersections of wall frames
  • Normally 3 Blocks per intersection
stress grading
Stress Grading
  • Refers to the Timbers Strength
  • Timber must be able to withstand stress loads placed on them.
  • Overloading may cause straining or failure
  • 3 types of stress Compressive Tensile Shear Note Torsional Stress is not discussed
stress grading1
Stress Grading
  • Members Sizes will be determined for span tables
  • Generally for Residential Construction sizes will not be specified by designers
  • Why?
  • Architect will not want to take responsibility
  • Engineer will want to charge extra to do this and
  • Why would a client want to pay for something that he can get done for nothing
stress grading2
Stress Grading
  • Why are members generally specified on Commercial projects
  • AS 1684.2 Residential Timber Framed Construction Guide
as 1684 2 limitations
AS 1684.2 Limitations

1.4.4 The Maximum number of storey's of timber shall not exceed 2

1.4.5 The maximum width of a building shall 16 000mm, Note, if you use AS1684.2 simplified max width = 12 000mm1.4.6 The maximum wall height shall be 3000mm excluding gable ends

1.4.7 The maximum roof pitch shall be 35 degrees

ordering timber
Ordering Timber
  • Timber is ordered in lineal metersmay be priced in cubic meters
  • Increments of 300mm
  • Timber should be ordered as required - avoid unnecessary exposure to weather- affecting cash flows- theft- storage
material storage
Material Storage
  • Timber should be stored on gluts
  • This allows for airflow
  • Care should be taken in stack sizes
  • Stacks can be strapped for safety
storage of materials
Storage of Materials
  • Timber should be stored as close as possible to work area
stud spacing other consideration
Stud Spacing – Other Consideration

Stud Spacing may also be determined by sheeting

studs
Studs
  • Not all external sheeting require critical stud placement
  • Check with LATEST manufactures manual as to requirements
harditek blue board
Harditek (Blue Board)

For Sheet Products Stud Placement is Important

calculating stud lengths
Calculating Stud Lengths
  • Finished Floor to Ceiling govern stud length
  • Minimum Habitable Room is 2400mm Clear
  • Floor Finishes1. Carpet 20mm2. Timber Flooring 40mm (Depending on Batten)
  • Ceilings1. 10mm Plasterboard2. 13mm Plasterboard
calculating stud length
Calculating Stud Length
  • Double Storey building may have FFL (Finished Floor Level).
  • Allowance must be made for structural members
  • Most Importantly Determine if there are any height restrictions
  • Type of Roof Will affect Stud Heights
slide349

Top & Bottom Plates = 90 x 45 F5

Step 1 – Determine Floor & Ceiling

Floor Carpet = 20mm

Ceiling Gyprock = 13mm

Step 2 – Calculate Stud Length

Minimum Clearance = 2400mm

Plus Flooring = 20mm

Plus Ceiling = 20mm

Wall Height = 2440mm

less Wall Plates = 90mm

Stud Length = 2350mm

slide350

Ground Fl Finish = Timber (40mm)

First Floor = Carpet (20mm)

Upper Level Joists = 200 x 50 F5

Top & Bottom Plates = 90 x 45

Step 1- Determine SFL (Structural Floor Level)

SFL First Floor = 28.950 (FFL First Fl)

-20 (Carpet)

SFL= 28.930

SFL Ground Fl = 26.200 (FFL Gnd)

- 40 (Timber)

SFL = 26.160

Step 2 – Calculate Height Difference

SFL First Floor = 28.930 –

SFL Ground Fl = 26.180

Height Difference = 2.750

Ground Floor

First Floor

slide351

Step 3 – Structural Elements

Height Diff = 2.750

Less Flooring = 0.017

Less Floor Joist = 0.200

Less T & B Plate = 0.090

Stud Length = 2.443

Ground Floor

First Floor

slide352

Carpet Both Floors (20mm) Ceilings 10mm Plasterboard (Allow 20mm)

Dimensions are clear measurements

Lower level plates Upper Level Plates

Bottom Plate = 90 x 35 F5 Bottom Plate = 90 x 45 F5

Top Plate = 90 x 45 F5 Top Plate = 90 x 70 F5

calculating door heights
Calculating Door Heights
  • On Concrete Slab
  • Using a standard 2040mm x 820mm
  • Allow 22mm for Carpet (17mm + 5mm)
  • 2040 mm Door Height
  • 2mm Clearance between Door & Jamb
  • 20mm for Jamb
  • 10mm Clearance between Jamb & Head
  • 15mm Clearance between Jamb & Lintel
  • Total = 2094mm Say 2100mm
calculation of window
Calculation of Window
  • Check with manufacturer if windows are not on site
  • Generally at same height of doors
  • Check on elevations for window heights
  • 15mm Clearance between Jamb & Lintel
  • Allow 10mm under sill
window width
Window Width
  • Care should be taken when setting out to brick bond!
    • Client may want window to line up with internal fitting
    • Client may want window dead center of room
construct wall frames
Construct Wall Frames
  • Number Wall Frames
  • Clock Wise Direction
  • Internal Walls Left to Right
  • Top To Bottom
setting out plates
Setting Out Plates
  • Confirm Dimensions of Slab/ SubfloorSelect Suitable Timber & Cut to LengthTack TogetherMark Appropriate ID Number on Plate
  • Mark Required Studs – In Following OrderEnd StudsWall IntersectionsOpeningsCommon Studs
setting out plates1
Setting Out Plates
  • If required prepare a storey rod with the appropriate markings (ie Horizontal & Vertical Bond)
  • Set out position of window and doors studs remembering to allow for required jamb studs
  • If required adjust position to match brickbond
  • Set out Common Studs, Jack Studs at required spacing
preparing studs
Preparing Studs
  • Use Storey Rod (Pattern Stud) to cut required studs
  • Mark and check out window and door studs
wall frame assembly
Wall Frame Assembly

What are Advantages & Disadvantages of Prefabricated Wall Frames?