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Basic Human Needs نیاز های اساسی انسانی. 01/04/2011. Basic Human Needs نیازهای اساسی انسان. Learning Objective: The Physical Therapy Technician will gain an understanding of basic human needs. Estimated Time to Complete : 102 minutes. مدت زمان تخمین شده برای تکمیل نمودن: 102 دقیقه.

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basic human needs1
Basic Human Needsنیازهای اساسی انسان

Learning Objective: The Physical Therapy Technician will gain an understanding of basic human needs.

Estimated Time to Complete: 102 minutes.

مدت زمان تخمین شده برای تکمیل نمودن:102 دقیقه

AFAMS

lesson overview dari
Lesson Overview.Dari
  • Discussing Maslow’s Hierarchy;
  • Effective communication;
  • Defining Critical Thinking in Physical Therapy;
  • Gaining an understanding of effective learning;
  • Gaining an understanding of therapeutic communication and patient education.

Dari

abraham maslow 1908 1970 1908 1970

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)ابراهم ماسلو (1908- 1970)

Humanistic-Existential Paradigm

Self-actualization Theory

اصالت وجود انسانی

تیوری خود شگوفایی

maslow s assumptions
Maslow’s Assumptions فرضیه های ماسلو
  • Human nature is basically good, not evil.
  • Normal human development involves the actualization of this inherent goodness.
  • اساسآ طبیعت انسان خوب است نه شریر.

رشد عادی انسان در برگیرنده تحقق این خوبی ذاتی میباشد.

central human motive
Central Human Motive انگیزه مرکزی انسان

Self-Actualization

خود شگوفایی

maslow s assumptions1
Maslow’s Assumptions...فرضیه های ماسلو...
  • Psychopathology results from the frustration of a human being’s essential nature

امراض روانی (Psychopathology) در نتیجه

نا امیدی طبیعت اساسی انسان بوجود میاید

maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs سلسله مراتب نیاز های ماسلو
  • Self-Actualization
  • Esteem
  • Love
  • Safety
  • Physiological
  • خود شگوفایی
  • احترام
  • عشق
  • ایمنی
  • فزیولوژیکی
slide9

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

سلسله مراتب نیاز های ماسلو

MOST NEEDS HAVE TO DO WITH

SURVIVAL PHYSICALLY AND

PSYCHOLOGICALLY

اکثریت نیازها با بقای حیات باید بشکل فزیکی و روانی در ارتباط باشد

PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS

نیاز های فزیولوژیک یا بقای حیات

slide10

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

سلسله مراتب نیاز های ماسلو

ON THE WHOLE AN INDIVIDUAL

CANNOT SATISFY ANY LEVEL

UNLESS NEEDS BELOW ARE

SATISFIED

  • در کل یک فرد نمیتواند هیچ یک از سطوح را برآورده سازد
  • مگر اینکه نیازمندی های سطح تحتانی برآورده گردد.
  • SAFETY NEEDS
    • نیاز های ایمنی

PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS

نیاز های فزیولوژیک یا بقای حیات

slide11

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs سلسله مراتب نیاز های ماسلو

LOVE, AFFECTION, AND

BELONGINGNESS NEEDS

نیاز های عشق، مهر و تعلق داشتن

  • SAFETY NEEDS
    • نیازهای ایمنی

PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS

نیاز های فزیولوژیک یا بقای حیات

slide12

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

سلسله مراتب نیاز های ماسلو

ESTEEM NEEDS

نیاز احترام

LOVE, AFFECTION, AND

BELONGINGNESS NEEDS

نیاز های عشق، مهر و تعلق داشتن

  • SAFETY NEEDS
    • نیاز های مصئونیت

PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS

نیاز های فزیولوژیک یا بقای حیات

slide13

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

سلسله مراتب نیاز های ماسلو

NEED

FOR

SELF-

ACTUALIZATION

نیاز

برای خود شگوفایی

MASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELF-ACTUALIZATION IS

A HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL’S PRIME

MOTIVATION

  • ماسلو تآکید میورزد که نیاز به خود شگوفایی انگیزه اولیه یک شخص صحتمند میباشد.
slide14

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

سلسله مراتب نیاز های ماسلو

NEED

FOR

SELF-

ACTUALIZATION

نیاز

برای خود شگوفایی

  • ماسلو تآکید میورزد که نیاز برای خود شگوفایی انگیزه اولیه یک شخص صحتمند میباشد.

MASLOW EMPHASIZES NEED FOR SELF-ACTUALIZATION IS

A HEALTHY INDIVIDUAL’S PRIME

MOTIVATION

slide15

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

سلسله مراتب نیاز های ماسلو

NEED

SELF-

ACTUALIZATION

نیاز خود

شگوفایی

ESTEEM NEEDS

نیازهای احترام

LOVE, AFFECTION, AND

BELONGINGNESS NEEDS

نیاز های عشق، مهر و تعلق داشتن

  • SAFETY NEEDS
    • نیازهای ایمنی

PHYSIOLOGICAL OR SURVIVAL NEEDS

نیازهای فزیولوژیک یا بقای حیات

slide16

Nobody can do everything,

هیچ کسی نمیتواند که همه چیز را انجام بدهد

but we can nearly all do more than we think we can

اما همه ما تقریبآ بیشتر از آنچه که فکر میکنیم انجام داده میتوانیم.

the 17 metaneeds 17
The 17 Metaneeds 17 نیاز ذاتی
  • Truth
  • Goodness
  • Beauty
  • Wholeness
  • Dichotomy-transcendence
  • Aliveness
  • Uniqueness
  • Perfection
  • Necessity
  • حقیقت
  • خوبی
  • زیبایی
  • تمامیت
  • Dichotomy-transcendence (پذیرش، قاطعیت، یک پارچگی شخصیت یا از حد گذشتن دوگانگی، دوقطبی بودن، تضاد ها، مخالفت ها)
  • زنده بودن
  • بی همتا بودن
  • کمال
  • ضرروت
the 17 metaneeds
The 17 Metaneeds..... نیاز های ذاتی...
  • Completion
  • Justice
  • Order
  • Simplicity
  • Richness
  • Effortlessness
  • Playfulness
  • Self-sufficiency
  • اتمام
  • عدالت
  • نظم
  • ساده گی
  • غنا
  • بی تکلف بودن
  • اهل تفریح بودن
  • خود کفایی
maslow s definition of a self actuali zed person
Maslow’s Definition of a Self-actuali سلسله مراتب نیاز های ماسلو zed Person

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

  • Has no mental illness
  • Satisfied in basic needs
  • Fully exploited talents
  • Motivated by values
  • بیماری عقلی ندارد
  • نیازمندی های اساسی مرفوع گردیده
  • از استعداد های خویش استفاده نموده
  • ارزش ها باعث انگیزش وی میگردد
some characteristics of self actualizing persons
Some Characteristics of Self-actualizing persons بعضی از خصوصیات شخص خود شگوفا
  • Superior perception of reality
  • Increased acceptance of self, of others, and of nature
  • Increased spontaneity
  • Increased detachment and desire for privacy
  • Greater freshness of appreciation and richness of emotional reaction
  • درک فوق العاده حقیقت
  • پذیرش مزید خویشتن، دیگران و طبیعت
  • افزایش خود انگیختگی
  • افزایش کناره گیری و تمایل به زنده گی خصوصی
  • طراوت بیشتر قدردانی و غنای تعامل عاطفی
some characteristics of self actualizing persons1
Some Characteristics of Self-actualizing persons..... بعضی از خصوصیات شخص خود شگوفا...
  • Increased autonomy and resistance to conformity
  • Higher frequency of peak experiences
  • Increased identification with the human species
  • Improved interpersonal experiences
  • More democratic character structure
  • High levels of creativity
  • تزئید استقلال و مقاومت در اطاعت
  • رخداد مکررتجارب خوش زنده گی
  • شناخت بیشتر با انواع انسان ها
  • تجارب بهتر روابط بین انسانها
  • ساختار شخصیت بیشتر دیموکرات
  • سطح بلند خلاقیت
a short scale measuring self actualization
A Short Scale Measuring Self-actualization مقیاس کوچک برای اندازه کردن خود شگوفایی
  • I do not feel ashamed of any of my emotions.
  • I feel I must do what others expect me to do. (NO)
  • I feel that people are essentially good and can be trusted.
  • I feel free to be angry to those I love.
  • It is always necessary that others approve of what I do. (NO
  • I don’t accept my own weaknesses. (NO)
  • I can like people without having to approve of them.
  • I fear failure. (NO)
  • من از هیچ یک از عواطفم احساس شرمنده گی ندارم
  • من احساس میکنم که من باید کاری را انجام بدهم که دیگران از من توقع آن را دارند. (نخیر)
  • من احساس میکنم که در اصل مردم خوب هستند و میتوانند مورد اعتماد قرار بگیرند.
  • من بطور آزادانه میتوانم بالای آنهائیکه دوست شان دارم قهر شوم.
  • همیشه لازم است چیزی را که من انجام میدهم دیگران به آن موافق باشند ( نخیر)
  • من ضعف های خود را قبول نمیکنم. (نخیر)
  • من میتوانم دیگران را دوست داشته باشم بدون ا ینکه آنها موافق باشند.
  • من از ناکامی میترسم. ( نخیر)
a short scale measuring self actualization1
A Short Scale Measuring Self-actualization مقیاس کوچک برای اندازه کردن خود شگوفایی
  • I avoid attempts to analyze and simplify complex domains. (NO)
  • It is better to be yourself than to be popular.
  • I have no mission in life to which I feel especially dedicated. (NO)
  • I can express my feelings even when they may result in undesirable consequences.
  • I do not feel responsible to help anybody. (NO)
  • I am bothered by feelings of being inadequate. (NO)
  • I am loved because I give love.
  • من از تلاش برای تحلیل و ساده ساختن ساحات مغلق دوری مینمایم. (نخیر)
  • بهتر است خودت باشی نسبت به اینکه مشهور باشی
  • من در زنده گی هیچ رسالتی ندارم که خود را به آن بطور خاص به آن وقف شده احساس کنم. ( نخیر)
  • من میتوانم احساسات خود اظهار کنم حتی اگر احتمالا سبب عواقب نامطلوب هم شوند.
  • من خود را مسؤل کمک به هیچ فردی حس نمیکنم. (نخیر)
  • من را احساسات نابسنده بودن اذیت میکند. ( نخیر)
  • من را دوست دارند بخاطریکه من دیگران را دوست دارم.
eight ways to self actualize
Eight ways to self-actualize هشت طریقه برای خود شگوفا شدن
  • Experience things fully, vividly, selflessly. Throw yourself into the experience; concentrate on it fully; let it totally absorb you.
  • Life is an ongoing process of choosing between safety (out of fear ) and risk (for the sake of growth: make the growth choice a dozen times a day.
  • Let the self emerge. Try to shut out external clues as to what you should think, feel, say and let your experience enable you to say what you truly feel.
  • چیز ها را بصورت کامل, واضح و خود گذر تجربه کنید. با شوق و علاقه تجربه را انجام دهید, بصورت مکمل بالای آن تمرکز نمائید, بگذارید شمار کاملا جذب نماید.
  • زنده گی یک پروسه دوامدار انتخاب میان مصؤنیت (خارج از ترس) و خطر ( بخاطر رشد) است, انتخاب بخاطر رشد را روزانه بارها انتخاب کنید.
  • باطن را اجازه بدهید که ظاهر شود. کوشش نمائید که تمام نفوذ بیرونی را مانع شوید که در مقابل آنچه شما فکر میکنید، احساس میکنید ومیگوئید قرار دارد و اجازه بدهید که تجربه شما، شما را قادر بسازد تا آنچه را که واقعآ حس میکنید بگوئید.
eight ways to self actualize1
Eight ways to self-actualize.... هشت طریقه برای خود شگوفا شدن....
  • When in doubt, be honest. If you look into yourself and are honest, you will also take responsibility; taking responsibility is self-actualizing.
  • Listen to your own tastes. Be prepared to be unpopular.
  • Use your intelligence.
  • Work to do well the things you want to do, whether that means finger exercises at a keyboard, memorizing every bone, muscle and hormone in the human body, or learning to finish wood so it looks and feels like silk.

وقتی مشکوک هستید, صادق باشید. اگر به خود بنگرید و صادق باشید، شما نیز مسؤلیت را بعهده خواهید گرفت، بعهده گرفتن مسئولیت عبارت از خود شگوفا شدن است.

  • از سلیقه خود کار بیگیرید. برای غیرمحبوب بودن آماده باشید.
  • از استعداد خویش استفاده کنید.
  • سعی ورزید کاری را که میخواهید بکنید بخوبی انجام بدهید حتی اگر این کار تمرین انگشتان بالای کیبورد، حفظ نمودن هر عظم، عضله و هورمون در وجود انسان و یا هم آموختن پالش چوب باشد تا همچو ابریشم بنظر آید.
eight ways to self actualize2
Eight ways to self-actualize.... هشت طریقه برای خود شگوفا شدن...
  • Make peak experiencing more likely: get rid of illusions and false notions; learn what you are good at and what your potentialities are not.
  • Find out who you are, what you like and don’t like, what is good and what is bad for you, where you are going, what your mission is. Opening yourself up in this way means identifying defenses - and then finding the courage to give them up.

احتمال تجارب خوش زنده گی را بیشتر سازید, از خیالات باطل و تصورات کاذب جلوگیری کنید. دریابید در چه کاری مهارت دارید و دارای چه استعدادهای هستید.

دریابید که شما کی هستید, چه را دوست دارید و چه را دوست ندارید, چی برای تان خوب است و چی برای تان خوب نیست, کجا میروید, رسالت شما چی است. زمانیکه به این ترتیب آزادانه صحبت میکنید ایستاده گی را تشخیص میکنید و بعداً جرئت آن را درمییابید که آنها را ترک بگوئید.

rogers maslow s healthy personalities
Rogers’ & Maslow’s Healthy Personalities شخصیت های صحتمند از نظر راجرز و ماسلو

راجرز

  • بیشتر آماده تجربه کردن. عدم ترس از احساسات خویش.
  • زنده گی بیشتر اگزستنسیال. نامعین, مستقل.
  • اعتماد بیشتر به وجود خویش. بیشتر خلاق، غیر متعارف.

Rogers

  • More fully open to experience. Unafraid of own feelings.
  • More existential living. Nondetermined, independent.
  • Increased trust in own organism. More creative, nonconformist.

Maslow

  • Reality and problem-centered. Accepting of self. Unexpected ruthlessness.
  • Spontaneity and simplicity. Freshness of appreciation. Discrimination between means and ends. Need for privacy.
  • Acceptance of others. resistance to acculturation. Creative. Unhostile sense of humor. More intimate personal relations. Social interest.

ماسلو

متمرکز بالای مشکل و حقیقت. پذیریش باطن. ظالم بودن غیر متوقع.

خود انگیختگی و ساده گی. طراوت قدر دانی. فرق میان اواسط و نهایات. نیاز به زنده گی خصوصی.

پذیریش دیگران. مقاومت در مقابل تغیر فرهنگ. خلاق. حس شوخی دوستانه. ارتباطات شخصی صمیمی. علاقه به اجتماع

importance of lesson dari
Importance of Lesson(Dari)
  • Insert Dari
  • Communication is the act of transferring information from one place to another:
    • vocally (using voice)
    • written (using printed or digital media such as books, magazines, websites or emails)
    • visually (using logos, maps, charts or graphs) or
    • non-verbally (using body language, gestures and the tone and pitch of voice).

www.skillsyouneed.com

AFAMS

importance of lesson dari1
Importance of Lesson(Dari)
  • Insert Dari
  • How well information can be transmitted and received is a measure of how good our communication skills are.
  • The ability to be able to communicate information accurately, clearly and as intended, is a vital life skill.
  • Good interpersonal communication skills enable us to work more effectively in groups and teams

www.skillsyouneed.com

AFAMS

importance of lesson dari2
Importance of Lesson(Dari)
  • Insert Dari
  • The ability to be able to communicate information accurately, clearly and as intended, is a vital as a Pharmacy Technician.
  • It allows you gather information quickly and accurately.
  • It allows you to better understand situations (e.g. patient questions)
  • It allows you to express yourself more clearly and be understood.

www.skillsyouneed.com

AFAMS

importance of lesson dari3
Importance of Lesson(Dari)
  • Insert Dari
  • The goal of this lecture is to improve your communication skills to make you more effective in your communication with patients and other healthcare providers.

AFAMS

overview dari
Overview (Dari)
  • Listening
    • Active Listening
    • Ineffective Listening
  • Verbal communication
  • Non-verbal communication
  • Opening and Closing Communications
  • Lesson Review
  • Scenarios (not graded)
  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

listening d ari
ListeningDari

Listening:

  • Listening is the ability to accurately receive messages in the communication process.
  • Listening is key to all effective communication, without the ability to listen effectively messages are easily misunderstood – communication breaks down and the sender of the message can easily become frustrated or irritated.www.skillsyouneed.com
  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

listening d ari1
ListeningDari

In North America: Adults spend an average of 70% of their time awake engaged in some sort of communication:

  • 45% listening
  • 30% speaking
  • 16% reading
  • 9% writing
    • Might be different in Afghanistanwww.skillsyouneed.com
  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

listening d ari2
ListeningDari

dari

dari

dari

dari

dari

dari

AFAMS

listening d ari3
ListeningDari
  • The majority of communication time should be spent listening not talking.

“If we were supposed to talk more than we listen, we would have two tongues and one ear.” Mark Twainwww.skillsyouneed.com

  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

listening d ari4
ListeningDari

Ten Principles of Listening:

  • Stop talking: If you are talking you are not listening.
  • Prepare your self to Listen: Relax. Focus on the speaker. Don’t think of other things.
  • Put the speaker at ease: Use gestures or words to encourage them to continue to speak.
  • Remove distractions: Don’t shuffle papers, look out the window, watch TV.
  • Empathize: Try to understand the other person’s point of view. Don’t have preconceived ideas.
  • Be patient: Never interrupt or finish a sentence for someone.
  • Avoid personal prejudice: Don’t become irritated by the persons communication style.

www.skillsyouneed .com

  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

listening d ari5
ListeningDari

Ten Principles of Listening Continued:

  • Listen to the tone: Volume and tone add to what someone is saying.
  • Listen for ideas: Link together pieces of information that are being said. (e.g. words, volume, tone…)
  • Wait and watch for non-verbal communication: Gestures, facial expressions, eye-movements.
    • Do not jump to conclusions about what you see and hear. You should always seek clarification to ensure that your understanding is correct. (Taught later)

www.skillsyouneed .com

  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

active listening d ari
Active ListeningDari

Active listening:

  • Active listening involves listening with all senses and giving full attention to the speaker.

“The most basic and powerful way to connect to another person is to listen. Just listen. Perhaps the most important thing we ever give each other is our attention.” Rachel Naomi Remen

www.skillsyouneed.com

  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

active listening d ari1
Active ListeningDari

Active listening:

  • Interest can be conveyed to the speaker by using both verbal and non-verbal messages
    • E.g maintaining eye contact, nodding your head and smiling, agreeing by saying ‘Yes’ or simply ‘Mmm hmm’ to encourage them to continue.
  • By providing this 'feedback' the person speaking will usually feel more at ease and therefore communicate more easily, openly and honestly.www.skillsyouneed.com
  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

active listening d ari2
Active ListeningDari

Active listening:

  • Listeners should remain neutral and non-judgmental. (e.g don’t take sides or form opinions)
  • Listeners should not be tempted to jump in with questions or comments every time there is silence.
  • Active listening involves giving the other person time to explore their thoughts and feelings, they should, therefore, be given adequate time.www.skillsyouneed.com
  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

active listening d ari3
Active ListeningDari

Verbal Signs of

Active listening:

  • Positive reinforcement: casual words such as, “yes”. But do not use too often or it can become irritating to the speaker.
  • Remembering: Previous conversations, or patient names can show you are listening.
  • Questioning: Asking relevant questions.
  • Reflection: Closely repeating or paraphrasing what the speaker said to show understanding.
  • Clarification: Asking questions to ensure the message is understood.
  • Summarisation: Repeat a summary of what the speaker said in the listener’s own words.www.skillsyouneed.com
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AFAMS

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Active ListeningDari

Non-Verbal Signs

Of Active listening:

  • Smile
  • Eye contact (depends on the culture)
  • Posture: leaning forward while listening.
  • Mirroring: reflecting the facial expressions of the speaker.
  • Not distracted: not looking at the clock or watch, no fidgeting. www.skillsyouneed.com
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AFAMS

ineffective listening d ari
Ineffective ListeningDari
  • It is common, when listening to someone else speak, to be formulating a reply while the other person is still talking.
  • However, this means that we are not really listening to all that is being said.
  • The result is that assumptions are made and conclusions reached about the speaker's meaning that might be inaccurate.www.skillsyouneed.com
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Ineffective ListeningDari

Barriers to Effective Listening

  • Trying to listen to more than one conversation at a time (including television, radio, or phone)
  • You find the communicator attractive/unattractive.
  • You are not interested in the topic/issue discussed and become bored.
  • Not focusing and being distracted.
  • Feeling unwell or tired, hungry, thirsty or needing to use the toilet.
  • Identifying rather than empathizing. Understanding what you are hearing but not putting yourself in the shoes of the speaker. www.skillsyouneed.com
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AFAMS

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Ineffective ListeningDari

Barriers to Effective Listening

  • Sympathizing rather than empathizing. Sympathy is not the same as empathy, you sympathise when you feel sorry for the experiences of another, to empathise is to put yourself in the position of the other person.
  • You are prejudiced or biased by race, gender, age, religion, accent, etc.
  • You have preconceived ideas or bias. Be open-minded to the ideas and opinions of others. This does not mean you have to agree.

www.skillsyouneed.com

  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

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Ineffective ListeningDari

Barriers to Effective Listening

  • You make judgments. “This person is not very bright or under qualified so there is no point listening to what they have to say.”
  • Previous experiences – We respond to people based on personal appearances, welcomes and/or previous interpersonal encounters. If we stereotype a person we become less objective and therefore less likely to listen effectively.www.skillsyouneed.com
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AFAMS

reflecting d ari
ReflectingDari
  • However good you think your listening skills are, the only person who can tell you if you have understood correctly or not is the speaker.
  • Reflecting is the process of paraphrasing and restating both the feelings and words of the speaker.
  • The purposes of reflecting are:
    • To allow the speaker to 'hear' their own thoughts and to focus on what they say and feel.
    • To show the speaker that you are trying to perceive the world as they see it and that you are doing your best to understand their messages.
    • To encourage them to continue talking.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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AFAMS

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ReflectingDari

Two Main Techniques of Reflecting:

  • Mirroring
  • Paraphrasing
    • involves using other words to reflect what the speaker has said
  • Reflecting does not involve you asking questions, introducing a new topic or leading the conversation in another direction.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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clarification d ari
ClarificationDari

Clarification involves offering back to the speaker the essential meaning, as understood by the listener, of what they have just said. Thereby checking that the listener's understanding is correct and resolving any areas of confusion or misunderstanding www.skillsyouneed.com

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ClarificationDari

Clarification is important in many situations especially when what is being communicated is difficult in some way. Communication can be 'difficult' for many reasons, perhaps sensitive emotions are being discussed or you are listening to some complex information or following instructions.

(Common in a Pharmacy Environment) www.skillsyouneed.com

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ClarificationDari

Purpose of Clarification is to:

    • Ensure that the listener's understanding of what the speaker has said is correct.
    • Reassure the speaker that the listener is genuinely interested.
  • A listener can ask for clarification when they cannot make sense of the speaker's responses.
    • “I'm not quite sure I understand what you are saying.”
    • “I don't feel clear about the main issue here.”
    • “When you said ........ what did you mean?”
    • “Could you repeat ...?”

www.skillsyouneed.com

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ClarificationDari

The best questions are open-ended since they give the speaker choice in how to respond. Closed questions allow only very limited responses.

Open Questions

  • If your role is to assist a speaker to talk about an issue, often the most effective questioning starts with 'when', 'where', 'how' or 'why'. These questions encourage speakers to be open and expand on their thoughts.
    • “When did you first start feeling like this?”
    • “Why do you feel this way?”

Closed Questions

  • Closed questions usually elicit a 'yes' or 'no' response and do not encourage speakers to be open and expand on their thoughts.
    • “Did you always feel like this?”
    • “Were you aware of feeling this way?”

www.skillsyouneed.com

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verbal communication skills d ari
Verbal Communication SkillsDari
  • Effective verbal or spoken communication is dependant on a number of factors and cannot be fully isolated from other important interpersonal skills such as non-verbal communication, listening skills and clarification.
  • Clarity of speech, remaining calm and focused, being polite and following some basic rules of etiquette will all help you communicate well.
  • The sound of a voice and the content of speech can provide clues to an individual's emotional state and a dialect can indicate their geographic roots. www.skillsyouneed.com
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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Effective speaking concerns being able to speak in a public context with confidence and clarity, whilst at the same time reflecting one's own personality.

Aspects of effective speaking include:

  • Accents. (Cannot affect)
  • Vocal production.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Vocal Production:

Volume

  • Some people have naturally soft voices and physically cannot bellow.
  • If the voice is raised too much, tonal quality is lost.
  • Instead of raising the voice it should be 'projected out'.
  • When talking to a group or meeting, it is important to never aim your talk to the front row or just to the people nearest you, but to consciously project what you have to say to those furthest away.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Vocal Production:

Clarity

  • Some people tend to speak through clenched teeth and with little movement of their lips. It is this inability to open mouths and failure to make speech sounds with precision that is the root cause of inaudibility.

Variety

  • To make speech effective and interesting, certain techniques can be applied. Vocal variety can be achieved by variations in:
    • Pace
    • Volume
    • Pitch - Inflection – Emphasis
    • Pause

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Vocal Variety:

  • Pace: The speed at which you talk. If speech is too fast then the listeners will not have time to assimilate what is being said. Nevertheless, it is a good idea to vary the pace - quickening up at times and then slowing down – this will help to maintain interest.
  • Volume: By raising or lowering volume occasionally, you can create emphasis.
  • Pitch - Inflection - Emphasis: When speaking in public, try to convey the information with as much vocal energy and enthusiasm as possible. Emphasize certain words and phrases to convey their importance.
  • Pause: Pauses are powerful. They can be used for effect to highlight the preceding statement or to gain attention before an important message. www.skillsyouneed.com
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non verbal communication skills d ari
Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari
  • Interpersonal communication not only involves the explicit meaning of words, the information or message conveyed, but also refers to implicit messages, whether intentional or not, which are expressed through non-verbal behaviours.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari
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Non-verbal Messages Allow People To:

  • Reinforce or modify what is said in words. For example, people may nod their heads vigorously when saying "Yes" to emphasize that they agree with the other person.
  • Convey information about their emotional state.
  • Define or reinforce the relationship between people.
  • Provide feedback to the other person.
  • Regulate the flow of communication, for example by signaling to others that they have finished speaking or wish to say something.

www.skillsyouneed.com

AFAMS

non verbal communication skills d ari2
Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Non-Verbal Communication Skills include:

  • Body Movements (Kinesics)
  • Posture
  • Eye Contact
  • Para-language
  • Closeness or Personal Space
  • Facial Expressions

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Body Movements (Kinesics)

  • Emblems: Gestures that serve the same function as a word are called emblems. For example, the hand placed over the heart signals sincerity.
  • Illustrators: Gestures which accompany words to illustrate a verbal message are known as illustrators. For example, the common circular hand movement which accompanies the phrase 'over and over again.
  • Affect Displays: These are facial expressions or gestures which show the emotions we feel.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Body Movements (Kinesics)

  • Regulators: Gestures used to give feedback when conversing are called regulators, for example head nods, short sounds such as 'uh-huh', 'mm-mm‘. Regulators allow the other person to adapt his or her speech to reflect the level of interest or agreement.
  • Adaptors: Non-verbal behaviours which either satisfy some physical need such as scratching or adjusting uncomfortable glasses, or represent a psychological need such as biting fingernails when nervous. Adaptive behaviours often accompany feelings of anxiety or hostilitywww.skillsyouneed.com
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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Posture:

  • Posture can reflect people's emotions, attitudes and intentions
  • Open and Closed Posture: Someone seated in a closed position might have his/her arms folded, legs crossed or be positioned at a slight angle from the person with whom they are interacting. In an open posture you might expect to see someone directly facing you with hands apart on the arms of the chair. An open posture can be used to communicate openness or interest in someone and a readiness to listen, whereas the closed posture might imply discomfort or disinterest.
  • Mirroring: reflecting the facial/ body expressions of the speaker.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Eye Contact:

Eye contact is an important aspect of non-verbal behaviour. Its three main purposes:

  • To give and receive feedback: Looking at someone lets them know that the listener is focused.
  • To let a listener know when it is their 'turn' to speak: When a person has finished what they have to say, they will look directly at the other person.
  • To communicate something about a relationship between people: When you dislike someone, you tend to avoid eye contact. However, sometimes it is a sign of respect.www.skillsyouneed.com
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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Para-language:

  • It relates to all aspects of the voice which are not strictly part of the verbal message, including the tone and pitch of the voice, the speed and volume at which a message is delivered, and pauses and hesitations between words. www.skillsyouneed.com
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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Closeness or Personal Space:

  • Every culture has different levels of physical closeness appropriate to different types of relationship, and individuals learn these distances from the society in which they grew up.
  • In today's multicultural society, it is important to consider the range of non-verbal codes as expressed in different ethnic groups. When someone violates an 'appropriate' distance, people may feel uncomfortable or defensive. Their actions may well be open to misinterpretation.

Facial Expressions:

  • Smiles show openness while raised eyebrows might show amazement or disbelief.www.skillsyouneed.com
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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Now that we have talked about the aspects of effective communication lets see how they are used together:

  • Opening Communication
  • Effective Listening
  • Reflecting and Clarifying
  • Closing Communication

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Opening Communication:

Appropriate greetings are usually expected:

  • Handshake
  • Introduce yourself
  • Eye contact

A friendly disposition and smiling face are much more likely to encourage communication than a blank face, inattention or disinterested reception.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Verbal Communication SkillsDari
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Effective Listening:

The following points are essential for effective and active listening:

  • Arrange a comfortable location conducive appropriate to the topic. (e.g private matter = private location)
  • Be prepared to listen.
  • Keep an open mind.
  • Avoid distractions if at all possible.
  • Delay judgment until speaker is finished.
  • Be objective.
  • Do not think of your next question while the other person is giving information.
  • Do not dwell on one or two points.
  • Don’t let prejudices associated with gender, ethnicity, social class, appearance or dress interfere with what is being said. www.skillsyouneed.com

AFAMS

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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Using Reflection and Clarification:

Reflecting often involves paraphrasing the message communicated to you by the speaker in your own words, capturing the essence of the facts and feelings expressed, and communicating your understanding back to the speaker

When clarifying what information was given make sure to use appropriate use of open and close ended questions.www.skillsyouneed.com

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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Closing Communication:

  • The way a communication is closed or ended will, at least in part, determine the way a conversation is remembered.
  • Closing an interaction too abruptly may not allow the other person to 'round off' what he or she is saying so you should ensure there is time for winding-up. The closure of an interaction is a good time to make any future arrangements.www.skillsyouneed.com
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ListeningDari

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ListeningDari

Ten Principles of Listening:

  • Stop talking: If you are talking you are not listening.
  • Prepare your self to Listen: Relax. Focus on the speaker. Don’t think of other things.
  • Put the speaker at ease: Use gestures or words to encourage them to continue to speak.
  • Remove distractions: Don’t shuffle papers, look out the window, watch TV.
  • Empathize: Try to understand the other person’s point of view. Don’t have preconceived ideas.
  • Be patient: Never interrupt or finish a sentence for someone.
  • Avoid personal prejudice: Don’t become irritated by the persons communication style.

www.skillsyouneed .com

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ListeningDari

Ten Principles of Listening Continued:

  • Listen to the tone: Volume and tone add to what someone is saying.
  • Listen for ideas: Link together pieces of information that are being said. (e.g. words, volume, tone…)
  • Wait and watch for non-verbal communication: Gestures, facial expressions, eye-movements.
    • Do not jump to conclusions about what you see and hear. You should always seek clarification to ensure that your understanding is correct. (Taught later)

www.skillsyouneed .com

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active listening d ari5
Active ListeningDari

Verbal Signs of

Active listening:

  • Positive reinforcement: casual words such as, “yes”. But do not use too often or it can become irritating to the speaker.
  • Remembering: Previous conversations, or patient names can show you are listening.
  • Questioning: Asking relevant questions.
  • Reflection: Closely repeating or paraphrasing what the speaker said to show understanding.
  • Clarification: Asking questions to ensure the message is understood.
  • Summarisation: Repeat a summary of what the speaker said in the listener’s own words.www.skillsyouneed.com
  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

active listening d ari6
Active ListeningDari

Non-Verbal Signs

Of Active listening:

  • Smile
  • Eye contact (depends on the culture)
  • Posture: leaning forward while listening.
  • Mirroring: reflecting the facial expressions of the speaker.
  • Not distracted: not looking at the clock or watch, no fidgeting. www.skillsyouneed.com
  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

clarification d ari4
ClarificationDari

The best questions are open-ended since they give the speaker choice in how to respond. Closed questions allow only very limited responses.

Open Questions

  • If your role is to assist a speaker to talk about an issue, often the most effective questioning starts with 'when', 'where', 'how' or 'why'. These questions encourage speakers to be open and expand on their thoughts.
    • “When did you first start feeling like this?”
    • “Why do you feel this way?”

Closed Questions

  • Closed questions usually elicit a 'yes' or 'no' response and do not encourage speakers to be open and expand on their thoughts.
    • “Did you always feel like this?”
    • “Were you aware of feeling this way?”

www.skillsyouneed.com

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AFAMS

scenarios assessment dari
Scenarios (Assessment)Dari

Formative Assessment:

  • Not marked
  • Used to assess the students understanding of lectures material.
  • Instructors will provide guidance for each scenario.
  • Instructor will provide a debrief after each scenario question to highlight reasons why response was correct or incorrect.
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scenario one dari
Scenario OneDari
  • Have students pair up in groups of 3. They should decide their roles:
  • one teenager
  • one parent
  • one observer.

2. Provide the following scenario:

“The teenager wants a later curfew and the parent does not want to extend the curfew.”

  • Directions on next page.
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Scenario OneDari

3. The teenager and parent should try to use good listening skills to effectively communicate.

4. The observer will take notes on what each person did good or not so good and provide feedback.

5. The observer from each group reports back to the class about what was effective in their group

6. If time allows, ask a group that feels they did an extremely good job if they would like to re-enact their role play in front of the entire group.

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Active ListeningDari

Verbal Signs of

Active listening:

  • Positive reinforcement: casual words such as, “yes”. But do not use too often or it can become irritating to the speaker.
  • Remembering: Previous conversations, or patient names can show you are listening.
  • Questioning: Asking relevant questions.
  • Reflection: Closely repeating or paraphrasing what the speaker said to show understanding.
  • Clarification: Asking questions to ensure the message is understood.
  • Summarisation: Repeat a summary of what the speaker said in the listener’s own words.www.skillsyouneed.com
  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

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Active ListeningDari

Non-Verbal Signs

Of Active listening:

  • Smile
  • Eye contact (depends on the culture)
  • Posture: leaning forward while listening.
  • Mirroring: reflecting the facial expressions of the speaker.
  • Not distracted: not looking at the clock or watch, no fidgeting. www.skillsyouneed.com
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AFAMS

scenario two dari
Scenario TwoDari

Joseph is driving in Kabul and can’t find the Chicken Street Restaurant. He stops and phones his brother for directions. His brother says quickly,

“You go down to the second traffic circle and make a right turn. I’m not sure of the street name. It begins with a W I think. Drive to the bridge located beside the Kabul Jewelers. It’s near a park. Turn right on the road immediately before the road splits into two roads. It has flowers planted there. It should be right on the corner. If you make it to the traffic circle you have gone to far”

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scenario two dari1
Scenario TwoDari
  • What was Joseph trying to find?
  • What should Joseph do at the end of the conversation to make sure he understands?
  • What poor communication technique did his brother use that made it difficult to understand the directions?
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scenario two dari2
Scenario TwoDari
  • What was Joseph trying to find?

Chicken Street Restaurant

  • What should Joseph do at the end of the conversation to make sure he understands?

REFLECT/ PARAPHASE the conversation and seek CLARIFICATION.

  • What poor communication techniques did his brother use that made it difficult to understand the directions?

Talking quickly which did not give Joseph a chance to seek clarification and paraphase during the converstation.

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scenario three dari
Scenario ThreeDari
  • Students may take notes if they want to answer the question at the end of the scenario.
  • Instructor will now cover or turn off the projector to read the scenario on the next slide. (Students should not see the scenario)
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scenario three dari1
Scenario ThreeDari

Instructor states:

“I drive the Main Street Bus. One day you (the student) get on the bus and you start to count:

  • At the first stop 5 people get on your bus.
  • At the next stop 3 people get on and 2 people get off the bus.
  • At the next stop 2 people get off the bus.
  • At the next stop 3 people get on and 1 person gets off the bus.
  • You stop counting.”

Here is the question:

What color are the eyes of the bus driver?

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Scenario ThreeDari
  • Insert Dari

Instructor states:

“I drive the Main Street Bus. One day you (the student) get on the bus and you start to count:

  • At the first stop 5 people get on your bus.
  • At the next stop 3 people get on and 2 people get off the bus.
  • At the next stop 2 people get off the bus.
  • At the next stop 3 people get on and 1 person gets off the bus.
  • You stop counting.”

Here is the question:

What color are the eyes of the bus driver?

Answer:

State the colour of your eyes. You (Instructor) are the bus driver in the scenario.

  • Uncover or turn on the projector
scenario three dari3
Scenario ThreeDari

For those that did not get the answer what aspects of poor active listening could explain why?

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possible reasons d ari
Possible ReasonsDari

Barriers to Effective Listening

  • Trying to listen to more than one conversation at a time
  • You find the communicator attractive/unattractive.
  • You are not interested.
  • Not focusing.
  • Feeling unwell or tired, hungry, thirsty or needing to use the toilet.
  • You are prejudiced or biased by race, gender, age, religion, accent, etc.
  • You have preconceived ideas or bias. (i.e. You thought it was going to be a math question)www.skillsyouneed.com
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Ineffective ListeningDari

Barriers to Effective Listening

  • Sympathizing rather than empathizing. Sympathy is not the same as empathy, you sympathise when you feel sorry for the experiences of another, to empathise is to put yourself in the position of the other person.
  • You are prejudiced or biased by race, gender, age, religion, accent, etc.
  • You have preconceived ideas or bias. Be open-minded to the ideas and opinions of others. This does not mean you have to agree.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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AFAMS

critical thinking definition
Critical Thinking Definitionتعریف
  • Critical thinking is an
  • active, organized,
  • cognitive process used to
  • carefully examine one’s
  • thinking and the thinking
  • of others.

افکارمهم نرسنگ یک پروسه شناختی فعال و منظم است که جهت معاینه محتاطانه تفکرخود و فکردرمورددیگران بکار میرود.

why do we need to think critically
Why do we need to think critically?چراما ضرورت داریم بحرانی یا حیاتی فکرکنیم
  • Need to make accurate and appropriate clinical decisions
  • Need to solve problems and find solutions
  • Need to plan care for each unique client and client problem
  • Need to seek knowledge and use it to make clinical decisions and problem solve
  • Need to be able to think creatively when planning care for clients
  • ضرورت است که تصمیم درست و مناسب کلینیکی بگیریم.
  • ضرورت است مشکلات را حل کرده و راه حل دریابیم
  • ضرورت است تا پلان برای مراقبت هرمریض واحد و مشکل وی گرفته شود
  • ضرورت است که دانش آموخته شود و جهت گرفتن تصمیم کلینیکی و حل مشکلات بکاربرده شود
  • ضرورت است قادرباشیم مبتکرانه فکر کنیم وقتیکه مراقبت مریض را پلان میکنیم
aspects of critical thinking
Aspects of Critical Thinkingاشکال تفکر مهم
  • To develop into an
  • expert critical thinker the
  • nurse needs to use:
    • Reflection
    • Language
    • Intuition

برای رشد به متفکرمتجرب نرس ضرورت داردتا مواردذیل را بکاربرد:

  • انعکاس
  • زبان
  • بینش
levels of critical thinking
Levels of Critical Thinkingسطوح افکارمهم
  • Basic Critical Thinking
  • Complex Critical Thinking
  • Commitment

افکار بحرانی اساسی

افکاربحرانی مختلط

تعهد

critical thinking competencies
Critical Thinking Competenciesشایستگی های افکارمهم
  • General critical thinking
  • competencies used by
  • many disciplines, in many
  • everyday situations:
    • Scientific method
    • Problem solving
    • Decision making

شایستگی های افکاربحرانی عمومی ذریعه دسپلین های متعدد بکارمیرود، درشرایط متعدد روزمره:

  • میتود علمی
  • حل مشکلات
  • گرفتن تصمیم
critical thinking competencies1
Critical Thinking Competencies شایستگی های افکارمهم
  • Specific critical thinking in
  • clinical situations used by
  • physicians, nurses, and
  • other health care professionals.
    • Diagnostic reasoning/ Clinical inference
    • Clinical decision making

افکاربحرانی بخصوص درشرایط کلینیکی ذریعه دوکتوران، نرس ها و افرادمسلکی دیگر بکارمیرود.

  • اسباب تشخیصیه/نتایج کلینیکی
  • گرفتن تصمیم کلینیکی
critical thinking competencies2
Critical Thinking Competencies شایستگی های افکارمهم
  • Specific critical thinking
  • competency used in Physical Therapy practice
  • Process
    • Assessment
    • Analysis
    • Planning
    • Implementation
    • Evaluation
  • شایستگی افکاربحرانی بخصوص در تجارب نرسنگ بکار میرود
  • پروسه نرسنگ
    • ارزیابی
    • تحلیل(تشخیص نرسنگ)
    • پلانگذاری
    • اجراء
    • ارزیابی
critical thinking model
Critical Thinking Modelمودل افکارمهم
  • The model helps to explain how clinicians make clinical judgments/ decisions in their clinical practice that result in safe, effective, care. There are 5 components in this model of critical thinking:
    • Knowledge base
    • Experience
    • Critical thinking competencies
    • Attitudes for critical thinking
    • Standards for critical thinking
  • مودل کمک میکند که بیان گردد که نرسها چگونه قضاوت ها وتصامیم کلینیکی را درعملکردهای انجام میدهند که منجربه مراقبت مصئون و موثر نرسنگ میشود. درین مودل افکاربحرانی 5 جز موجود است:
    • اساس دانش
    • تجربه در نرسنگ
    • شایستگی افکار بحرانی
    • روشها برای افکار بحرانی
    • ستندرد ها برای افکاربحرانی
critical thinking attitudes
Critical Thinking Attitudesشیوه های افکارمهم
  • Confidence
  • Thinking independently
  • Fairness
  • Responsibility and accountability
  • Risk taking
  • Discipline
  • اعتماد
  • تفکرمستقلانه
  • عدالت
  • مسئولیت و جوابگویی
  • گرفتن خطر
  • دسپلین
critical thinking attitudes1
Critical Thinking Attitudes شیوه های افکارمهم
  • Perseverance
  • Creativity
  • Curiosity
  • Integrity
  • Humility
  • استقامت
  • ابتکار
  • کنجکاوی
  • درستی
  • فروتنی
standards
Standardsستندردها
  • Intellectual Standards-
    • 14 intellectual standards (Paul,1993) :
      • 1. Confidence
      • 2. Independence
      • 3. Fairness
      • 4. Responsibility
      • 5. Risk taking
      • 6. Discipline
      • 7. Perseverance
      • 8. Creativity
      • 9. Curiosity
      • 10. Integrity
      • 11. Humility

ستندردهای عاقلانه-

  • 14 ستندردهای عاقلانه(پاول1993)
  • نرسها اینهارا وقتی بکارمیبرند که پروسه نرسنگ را پیش میبرند:
    • 1. اعتماد
    • 2. استقلال
    • 3. عدالت
    • 4. مسئولیت
    • 5. گرفتن خطر
    • 6. دسپلین
standards1
Standardsاستندردها
  • Professional standards
    • Sound ethical standards
      • When critically thinking must have a sense of their own values, beliefs, feelings and their clients/ client’s family’s values, beliefs, feelings
    • Scientifically based practice with standards developed by experts
      • Evidenced based practice
      • Standards developed as a result of evidence
      • These are minimum requirements that are necessary to give quality effective care
  • استندرد های مسلکی
      • - استندرد های اخلاق صدا
        • زمانیکه اندیشه های مهم باید معنی از ارزشها های خودی ، معتقدات ، احساسات و مریضان/ارزشهای فامیل مریض، معتقدات ، احساسات را داشته باشد.
        • - کار عملی با اساس علمی همراه با استندردهای انکشاف یافته بواسطه ماهرانه
        • - کارعملی با مدارک
        • - ستندردهاییکه درنتیجه مدارک انکشاف کرده
        • - اینها ضروریات کم اند که برای مراقبت موثر باکیفیت حتمی اند
effective learning
Effective Learningآموزش مؤثر

Learning Objective: Nursing students will gain an understanding of effective learning techniques and attempt to employ them throughout the course.

هدف آموزش: محصلین نرسنگ ازتخنیک های آموزش موثریک مفهوم خواهندگرفت وتلاش خواهندکردکه آنرا درجریان کورس استفاده کنند.

Estimated Time to Complete: 96 minutes.

وقت معین شده برای تکمیل:96 دقیقه

AFAMS

are you the only active learner in the classroom

“Are You the Only Active Learner in the Classroom?” آیا شما یگانه شاگرد فعال صنف هستید ؟

AFAMS

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Effective Learning

آموزش مؤثر

“Tell me and I forget. Show me and I remember. Involve me and I understand.” - Chinese proverb

برایم بگوومن فراموش خواهم کرد. برایم نشان بده ومن بخاطرخواهم داشت. مرا وقت بده و من خواهم فهمید.

icebreakers
Icebreakersیخ شکن ها

One of the easiest yet effective ways to incorporate active learning into a class

Particularly useful at early meetings of a course

Can create a “safe” classroom over time

Even a course using traditional lecture could benefit from the use of occasional icebreakers.

یکی از اسانترین راه های موثر تاکنون برای بوجود اوردن اموزش فعال در یک صنف میباشد

مخصوصاً در اولین ملاقات یک کورس مفید است

باعث ایجاد یک صنف درسی امن شده میتواند

حتی یک کورس که از لکچرهای رایج و سنتی استفاده میکنند میتوانند از استفاده گاه و بیگاه یخ شکن ها سود ببرند

what is active learning
What Is Active Learning? آموزش فعال چیست ؟

Make a list of every active learning activity or exercise you can think of in 60 seconds?

Share with your group.

How does your group define “active learning”?

یک لست از هرنوع فعالیت اموزش فعال یا تمرین که فکرکرده میتوانید در مدت 60 ثانیه انجام دهید، ترتیب نمایید؟

همراه با گروپ خود سهیم سازید

گروپ شما اموزش فعال را چگونه معنی میکنند ؟

what is active learning1
What is Active Learning? آموزش فعال چیست ؟

Active learning occurs when students are given the opportunity to interact with the subject matter of a course. It is anything students do in the classroom other than passively listening to a lecture.

Students generate rather than receive knowledge. It is impossible to transmit knowledge.

The teacher facilitates rather than dictates the students’ learning.

Active learning can vary from occasional use in a course to the main “teaching” strategy used by the instructor.

اموزش فعال زمانی صورت میگیرد که به شاگردان فرصت داده شود که با موضوع اصلی کورس متقابلاً عمل نمایند

این چیزهای است که شاگردان در صنف درسی نسبت به اینکه غیرفعال به درس گوش بدهند انجام میدهند

شاگردان بعوض اخذ، دانش را تولیدمیکنند این ناممکن است که دانش را انتقال دهیم.

معلم ترجیعاً سهولت را فراهم میکند نسبت به اینکه آموزش درس را دیکته نماید

اموزش فعال میتواند از استفاده اتفاقی در یک کورس تا به ستراتیژی تدریسی عمده که توسط معلم استفاده میشود فرق داشته باشد

why use active learning
Why Use Active Learning? چرا آموزش فعال استفاده میشود ؟

Research suggests that active learning is an exceptionally effective teaching technique.

Regardless of subject matter, when compared to traditional teaching methods (lecture), students learn more material, retain the information longer, meet other students, and enjoy class more.

Much more later…

تحقیقات نشان میدهد که آموختن فعال یک تکنیک تدریسی موثر و استثنا یی آموزش میباشد

صرف نظر از موضوع اصلی زمانیکه با میتود های تدریسی سنتی (لکچر) مقایسه گردید شاگردان موضوعات بیشتر را میاموزند, معلومات را برای مدت بیشتر حفظ میتوانند, شاگردان دیگر را ملاقات میکنند, و از صنف بیشتر لذت میبرند

جزئیات بیشتر بعداً تقدیم میشود.........

active lectures
Active Lectures لکچرهای فعال

Structured notes

Clarification pauses

Muddiest point

One minute papers

Presentation with listening teams

Wait time after question is asked

Feedback cards or devices

نوت های ساخته شده

وقفه های توضیح

نقطه مبهم

اوراق یک دقیقه ای

ارائه و پیشکش همراه با تیم های سمعی

زمان انتظار بعد از اینکه سوال پرسیده شود

کارت های فیدبک یا وسایل

collaborative cooperative learning
Collaborative/Cooperative Learning آموزش مشترک و کمکی

Collaborative learning is one of the most powerful tools instructors have in higher education.

Students get a chance to speak, share personal views, and develop the skill of working with others.

Requires that group members work together to complete a given task.

آموزش کمکی یکی از نیرومند ترین وسیله آموزگاران است که در تحصیلات عالی دارند

شاگردان چانس این را بدست میاورند که صحبت نمایند, نظریات خود را شریک سازند و مهارت کار با دیگران را انکشاف دهند

ضرورت است که اعضای گروپ با همدیگر کار نمایند تا وظایف محوله را تکمیل نمایند

.

think pair share
Think-Pair Shareتفکریکجایی مشترک

Students are given time to think about a topic, turn to their neighbor for a short discussion, and then share the results with the rest of the class.

Can be used in any size classroom

Works well with any subject or topic

Useful in moving traditional lectures to active lectures even in very large classes

به شاگردان وقت داده شود که در باره موضوع فکر کنند,بطرف همسایه خود برای یک مباحثه دور بخورد, و بعداً با دیگرهمصنفی ها نتایج را شریک سازند

در هر سایز صنف درسی میتواند استفاده شود

همراه با هرموضوع یا مطلب خوب کار میکند

در انتقال لکچرهای سنتی به لکچرهای فعال حتی در صنف های بسیار بزرگ مفید است

classroom assessment techniques cat s
Classroom Assessment Techniques (CAT’s) تکنیک های ارزیابی صنف(پشک ها)

Students are given a few minutes during, or at the end, of a class to answer questions such as: “What was the most important thing you learned today?”

به شاگردان در جریان و یا درختم صنف چند دقیقه وقت داده شود تا به سوالات جواب دهند مثلاً: چیزی مهم را که امروز آموختید چه بود؟

brainstorming
Brainstorming طوفان ذهنی

A simple technique that can involve an entire class in a discussion

The instructor introduces a topic or problem and then asks for student input.

Works well with pair-share

Let’s try a brainstorm!!

یک تکنیک ساده است که میتواند تمام صنف را در مباحثه سهیم سازد

معلم یک موضوع یا مشکلی را مطرح میکند و بعداً از توانایی شاگردان میپرسد

با بحث گروپی شاگردان خوبتر کار میکنند

بیائید که یک برین ستورمنگ (طوفان ذهنی) را براه اندازیم !!

games
Games بازی ها

Games related to a subject can easily be incorporated into the classroom to foster active learning and increased participation.

Games might include matching, mysteries, group competitions, solving puzzles, and jeopardy.

بازی ها به یک موضوع ارتباط میگیرد که به آسانی در صنف درسی ترکیب شود تا آموزش فعال را توسعه داده و اشتراک در انرا افزایش دهد

بازی میتواند شامل مسابقه, معما , رقابت گروپی, حل جدول معما و مسئله پیچیده باشد

debates
Debates مباحثات

Debates staged in class can be effective tools for encouraging students to think about several sides of an issue.

Debates can vary from simple, in-class presentations to more elaborate work over a period of time and with a group.

Debates can be particularly powerful learning tools when students have to switch sides.

مباحثات در صنف میتواند وسیله خوب برای تشویق شاگردان باشد تا در باره جوانب یک موضوع فکر کنند

مباحثات میتواند از شکل ساده نمایش صنفی تاانکشاف بیشتر کار دریک مدت زمان و همراه با یک گروپ تغیر کند

زمانیکه شاگردان مجبور به گزینش جهت باشند مباحثات میتواند وسیله نیرومند بخصوص اموزشی باشد

role play
Role Play بازی نقش

Most people have heard that you really don’t know something until you can teach it. Through role play, students actually experience the material they are studying.

Role play can be simple to complex depending on the course, level of students, and time given for student preparation.

بسیاری مردم شنیده اند که تا شما درس ندهید واقعاً چیزی را نمیدانید. از طریق بازی نقش شاگردان موارد را که خوانده اند واقعاً تجربه میکنند

بازی نقش میتواند ساده یا پیچیده در ارتباط به کورس,سویه شاگردان, و زمان معین برای اماده سازی شاگردان باشد

case studies
Case Studiesمطالعه واقعات

Instructors who use case studies find real-life stories or problems that prompt students to integrate their classroom knowledge with their understanding of real-world situations, actions, and consequences.

Instructors can develop case studies to fit the topics and material being studied.

استادان که از مطالعه واقعات استفاده میکنند داستان های واقعی زنده گی و یا مشکلات را دریافت مینمایند تا شاگردان را وادار نماید که دانش صنف درسی را همراه با فهم اوضاع واقعی جهان, اقدامات, و نتایج ربط دهند.

استادان میتوانند مطالعه واقعات را انکشاف دهند تا مطالب و مواد را که مطالعه میشود بطور مناسب جلوه دهند

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problem based learning
Problem Based Learning آموزش مبنی بر مشکلات

Problem-based Learning: PBL is any learning environment in which the problem drives the learning. PBL is an important part of Team based learning.

شما باید مشکلات خود را واضع سازید

آموزش مبنی بر مشکلات : پی بی ال یا آموزش مبنی بر مشکلات، هرنوع محیط آموزشی میباشد که در ان مشکلات آموزش را به پیش میبرد. پی بی ال یک بخش مهم از تیم به اساس آموزش است

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Team Based Learning

آموزش به اساس تیم

Team based learning goes a step further than cooperative learning with students staying in the same group for an entire semester, transforming groups into teams.

آموزش به اساس تیم نسبت به آموزش اشتراکی با قرار گرفتن محصلین درعین گروپ برای یک سمسترکامل, و تغیر گروپ ها به تیم ،یک قدم بیشترپیش میرود.

writing assignments
Writing Assignments تحریر کارخانگی

Provides students with the opportunity to think about and process information

Many options for writing activities including reflections on material learned.

Provides valuable feedback to instructor and student

Daily journals a popular technique

برای شاگردان فرصت این را فراهم میکند که در باره فکر کنند ومعلومات را تهیه کنند

گزینه های زیادی برای نوشتن فعالیت ها به شمول بازتاب مواد اموخته شده وجود دارد

فیدبک با ارزشی را برای استاد و شاگرد فراهم میکند

حاضری روزانه یک تکنیک مناسب است

service learning
Service Learning آموزش خدمات

Service-learning is an educational method that entwines the threads of experiential learning and community service.

It meets educational objectives through real-world experiences, while tapping youths as resources to benefit their college and communities.

Students can discuss and reflect on subject matter outside of the classroom and with others besides the instructor.

آموزش خدمات یک میتود آموزشی است که رشته های اموزش تجربوی را با خدمات اجتماعی به هم وصل میکند.

با اهداف آموزشی از طریق تجارب جهان واقعی مطابقت میکند, تا زمانیکه بهره برداری جوانان را به عنوان منابع جامعه و آموزشگاه نفع برساند

if at
اف-ات IF-AT

A relatively new strategy that encourages active learning is the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT).

This multiple-choice procedure provides immediate feedback to students and partial credit for answers.

Powerful with team based learning.

تکنیک ارزیابی فیدبک سریع (اف-ات)یک ستراتیژی نسبتاً جدید است که آموزش فعال را تقویت مینماید.

این طرزالعمل انتخابی چند گانه فیدبک سریع را به شاگردان و امتیاز قسمی را برای جوابات فراهم مینماید.

با اموزش همراه با تیم به طور دسته جمعی اساساً موثر است.

if at1
IF-AT اف-ات

This is a particularly powerful tool when used with groups.

Each group decides the best answer and scratches off the coating of the rectangle corresponding to the answer. If correct, a star appears.

If the first answer is incorrect, the group continues to look for the next best answer and scratch rectangles until the correct answer is found.

زمانیکه با گروپ ها استفاده شود یک وسیله مخصوصاً موثراست

هرگروپ بهترین جواب را ارائه مینماید وپوشش مستطیل را مطابق جواب میتراشند اگر جواب درست بود یک ستاره ظاهر میشود

اگر اولین جواب غلط باشد گروپ برای دریافت جواب درست به تراش مستطیل ادامه میدهند تا زمانیکه جواب درست دریافت شود.

value of active learning
Value of Active Learning ارزش آموزش فعال

Fosters metacognition in students

Involves students in the learning process

Classroom results tend to improve with deeper learning evident through connections with material from the students’ own experience.

Builds diversity understanding among students as they learn about each other

تشویق شناخت و درک درنزد شاگردان

سهیم ساختن شاگردان در پروسه آموزش

توقع میرود که از صنف درسی نتایج خوب باآموزش عمیق ازطریق ارتباط به موضوع از تجارب شخصی شاگردان بدست اید

توافق نظر را در میان شاگردان بوجود میاورد قسمیکه انها در باره یک دیگر آگاهی حاصل مینمایند

value of active learning1
Value of Active Learning ارزش آموزش فعال

Develops learning communities and study groups

Encourages students to seek help and accept tutoring from peers

Cooperation reduces anxiety

Provides a variety of assessments for student learning

Develops oral communication skills through classroom discussions

جامعه آموزشی و گروپ های مطالعوی را انکشاف میدهد

شاگردان را تشویق به جلب کمک و پذیرش آموزش از همسالان خود مینماید

همکاری و تشریک مساعی اظطراب و نگرانی را کاهش میدهد

یک تنوع ارزیابی را برای آموزش شاگردان فراهم میکند

مهارت های ارتباط فمی را از طریق مباحثه صنفی انکشاف میدهد

value of active learning2
Value of Active Learning ارزش آموزش فعال

Models appropriate student problem solving techniques

Develops social support system for students

Established a positive atmosphere for preparing students for real world workplace where teamwork is often crucial to success

مدل ها یا نمونه ها تکنیک های حل مشکلات شاگردان را معین میسازد

سیستم حمایت اجتماعی را برای شاگردان انکشاف میدهد

یک فضا مثبت را برای اماده گی شاگردان برای یک محیط واقعی مهیا میسازد جایکه کار دسته جمعی اغلباً مصمم به موفقیت میباشد

value of active learning3
Value of Active Learning ارزش آموزش فعال

Large classes can be more personalized with pair-share work

Increases excitement and interest for the instructors who learns new things in each class period since they can’t depend on lectures and must sometimes improvise

Encourages students take responsibility for their own education

صنف های بزرگ میتواند بیشتر با کارمشترک اختصاصی باشد

هیجان و رغبت برای استادان را زیاد میسازد کسانیکه چیزهای جدید را درهر دوره صنف میاموزند از ان جایکه انها نمیتوانند وابسته به لکچر ها باشند وباید مسایل دیگر را نیز مشتمل سازند

شاگردان را تشویق به گرفتن مسئولیت در رابطه به آموزش شان مینماید

therapeutic communication patient teaching
Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض

Learning Objective: Nursing students will gain an understanding of the importance of therapeutic communication and patient teaching.

هدف آموزش: محصلین نرسنگ یک مفهوم از اهمیت روابط معالجوی و تعلیم مریض خواهند گرفت.

Estimated Time to Complete: 90 minutes.

وقت معین شده برای تکمیل: 90 دقیقه

AFAMS

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Exchange between patient & healthcare worker.• Provides: – support– information, corrects distortions– feedback– hope– a means for patient expression– a means for being heard & understood

Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teaching

روابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض

  • تبادله (افکار)بین مریض و پرسونل صحی
  • تهیه میکند:
    • حمایت
    • معلومات درست کردن غلطی ها
    • فیدبک یا عکسل العمل
    • امید
    • موضوع ابراز نظر مریضان را بیان میدارد
    • و همچنان افهام و تفهیم را بیان میدارد
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • Patient-centered listening...
  • • active listening
  • • reflective listening
  • • focus on patient, not on self
  • • suspend immediate judgment
  • • fully present & receptive to patient
  • شنیدن خود مریض
    • شنیدن فعال
    • شنیدن انعکاسی
    • توجه به مریض ، نه برای خود
    • به تعویق انداختن قضاوت آنی
    • حاضر و با احترام به مریض
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • The goal of patient-centered
  • listening...
  • • asking open-ended questions
  • • allowing the patient to speak freely
  • • assisting the patient to focus on chief
  • complaint
  • هدف از شنیدن خود مریض...
  • پرسیدن سوالات جامع
  • مریض را اجازه دهید تا بشکل آزاد صحبت نماید
  • مریض را کمک نماییم تا روی شکایت اساسی خود توجه کند.
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • Prejudice...
  • • judging based upon preconceived or
  • stereotypical criteria
  • • self-oriented rather than other-oriented
  • • elevates at the expense of others
  • • prejudice = discrimination
  • قضاوت‌ تبعيض‌ آميز...
  • قضاوت براساس کریتریای قبل از تصور یا آسان باشد
  • توجه به خود نسبت به توجه به دیگران بهتر است
  • بها یا ارزش دیگران را ارتقا میدهد
  • قضاوت مساوی بر تفکیک پزیری میباشد
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • Therapeutic environment...
  • • protects privacy
  • • establishes trust
  • • allows emotion
  • • promotes open, honest communication
  • • minimizes distractions:

– noise

  • – visual
  • • eliminates physical barriers
  • – furniture
  • – equipment
  • محیط معالجوی ....
    • محرمیت را محافظت مینماید
    • عقیده وباور را تاسیس مینماید
    • احساسات شخص را تصویب مینماید
    • ارتباطات و صداقت ازاد را انکشاف مینماید
    • پریشانی ها را کاهش میدهد
      • صرو صدا
      • بصری
  • موانع فزیکی را محوه مینماید
    • وسائل خانه
    • تجهیزات
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • Nonverbal communication...

• kinesics – (the way in which certain body movements and gestures serve as a form of nonverbal communication)

  • • socially learned
  • • vary with culture
  • • 70% of one-on-one conversation is
  • nonverbal
  • • verbal & nonverbal messages should
  • match
  • • personal space, 2 to 4 feet
  • • touch…when, where?
  • صحبت غیر لفظی
    • حرکات وجود
    • آموخته ازاجتماع
    • متغیر با فرهنگ
    • 70 فیصد صحبت با یگدیگر بصورت غیر لفظی است
    • پیغام های لفظی و غیر لفظی باید مطابقت نمایند
    • مصافه با شخص 2 الی 4 فت باشد
    • تماس نمود ن ......چه وقت و در کدام قسمت ؟
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
  • • Theory of human motivation for self-fulfillment
  • • basic needs met first
  • • illness can cause retreat to basic needs
  • • dominant needs change throughout life
  • cycle
  • ضروریات قدم به قدم ماسلو
      • تیوری محرک بشر برای خود شکوفائی
      • ضروریات ابتدائی اولآ در نظر گرفته شود
      • مریضی ممکن سبب حل مشکل دوباره نیازمندی های ابتدائی گردد
      • نیازمندی های عمده در جریان زنده گی تغیر میکند
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy:
  • Self-actualization -peace, fulfillment, social action
  • Esteem - self-respect, autonomy, status, recognition
  • Social - affection, belonging, friendship
  • Safety - security, protection from physical & emotional harm
  • Physiological - food, drink, shelter

قدمه های ماسلو:

  • صلح واقعی خودی، قناعت، اقدام اجتماعی
  • اعتبار-احترام خود، اختیار، حالت، شناخت
  • علایق اجتماعی، متعلقات، دوستی
  • مصئونیت -امنیت، محفظت از خطرات فزیکی و عاطفی
  • فزیولوژیکی – غذا، نوشابه، سرپناه
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • Coping mechanisms...
  • • Strategy, conscious or unconscious, for relieving anxiety.
  • • Can protect us or harm us.
  • • May present barriers to therapeutic
  • communication.
  • میکانیزم تلاش ....
      • ستراتیژی، هوشیار یا بیهوشی برای تسکین اضطراب
      • میتواند که برای ما کمک کند و یا اینکه آسیب رساند
      • ممکن موانع را برای ارتباط معالجوی ایجاد نماید
slide148

Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teaching

روابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض

  • Patients with special needs...
  • • Elderly:
  • – vision
  • – hearing
  • – comprehension - don’t patronize
  • • Impaired:
  • – mentally
  • – physically
  • – visually
  • – hearing
  • ضروریات مخصوص مریض
      • کهن سالان:
        • بینائی
        • شنوائی
        • افهام – تشویق نکردن
  • معیوب:
        • از نظر روانی
        • از نظر فزیکی
        • از نظر بینائی
        • از نظر شنوائی
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • Why is patient teaching important?
  • • Empowers
  • • Gives control
  • • Patient takes active role in healthcare
  • decisions
  • • Facilitates compliance with prescribed
  • treatments
  • چرا تعلیم دهی مریض بسیار مهم میباشد؟
      • اختیار دادن
      • توانائی کنترول
      • مریض در قسمت مراقبت وتداوی نقش فعال ایفا میکند
      • توافق را با تداوی توصیه شده تسهیل میکند
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • Patient education...
  • • May be formal
  • • May be informal
  • • Is an active process
  • • Intended to produce an observable change
  • in attitude or behavior
  • تدریس مریض....
    • ممکن رسمی باشد
    • ممکن غیر رسمی باشد
    • یک پروسه فعال است
    • تمایل جهت دریافت تغیرات ملاحظوی از رفتار و رویت
for patient to change behavior
For Patient to Change Behavior... برای تغیرنمودن رفتار مریض
  • • Needs to acquire new:
  • – knowledge
  • – skills
  • – values
  • – beliefs
  • بدست اوردن ضروریات جدید
    • علمیت
    • تجارب
    • ارزش ها
    • عقاید
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • The patient-centered approach to teaching is...
  • • Collaborative between teacher & learner
  • • Must be centered on the individual needs of the patient
  • دسترسی خودمریض در تدریس عبارتست از............
    • تشریک مساعی بین استاد و شاگرد (داکتر و مریض)
    • باید روی ضروریات انفرادی مریض متمرکز گردد.
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • The teaching process...
  • • Assess patient’s needs
  • • Plan a strategy
  • • Deliver & document
  • • Evaluate results
  • پروسه تعلیم دهی ....
    • ضروریات مریض را ارزیابی نمایید
    • یک استراتیژی را روی دست گیرید
    • انتقال و درج دوسیه
    • ارزیابی نتائج
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • Assessment:
  • • health care needs
  • • ability & emotional readiness to learn
  • • addresses patient’s environment &
  • support network
  • ارزیابی:
    • ضروریات مراقبت صحی
    • قدرت و توانائی وآماده گی روحی جهت آموختن
    • محیط مریض را معرفی نموده و شبکه را تقویت نماییید
strategy
Strategyستراتیژی
  • • Jointly agreed upon concrete goal or
  • objective.
  • • Develop plan in collaboration with
  • patient.
  • • Include all 3 domains of learning:
  • – cognitive, knowledge about subject
  • – psychomotor, physical action or experience
  • – affective, how one feels about subject
  • Seize the moment – spontaneous readiness!
  • • درقسمت اهداف اصلی یا موضوع موافقه مشترک باشد
  • پلان تشریک مساعی را با مریض انکشاف دهید
  • هر سه نقاط آموزشی را شامل کنید
    • شناخت و علمیت در باره موضوع
    • اقدام یا تجربه سایکوموتور، فزیکی
    • موثر، چطور یک شخص درباره موضوع احساس میکند
  • فرصت را غنیمت شمردن – آماده گی شخص
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Therapeutic Communication & Patient Teachingروابط معالجوی و تعلیم دهی مریض
  • Delivery:
  • • One-on-one

– preoperative teaching

  • • Small group - attitudinal change
  • – smoking
  • – weight management
  • • Demonstration
  • – dressing change
  • – breast self-examination
  • تحویل :
      • یک به یک
        • تعلیم دهی مریض قبل از عملیات
  • گروپ کوچک – تغیرات وضعیتی
    • سگرت کشیدن
    • مراقبت از وزن
  • نمایش
    • تبدیلی پانسمان
    • معاینات خودی ثدیه ها
documentation
Documentationدرج دوسیه
  • • Prevents duplication of:
  • – time
  • – effort
  • • Liability protection
  • جلوگیری میکند از تکرار:

–وقت

– تلاش

• محافظت شایستگی

evaluation
Evaluation ارزیابی
  • • Patient feedback
  • • Were goals met? If not, why?
  • • Patient’s reaction
  • • What follow-up is needed
  • • What went well, what could be improved upon?
  • • Evaluate teaching, learn & grow, develop teaching skills & confidence
  • فیدبک (تقویت)مریض
  • ایا اهداف دیده شد ؟ اگرنشد چرا؟
  • عکس العمل مریض
  • کدام نوع تعقیب ضرورت میباشد
  • کدام موضوع بهترانجام شد و کدام نقاط در انکشاف موضوع کمک مینماید؟
  • ارزیابی تعلیم دهی، آموختن و رشد و انکشاف تجارب تعلیم دهی و اعتماد
five ways to facilitate therapeutic communication
Five Ways to FacilitateTherapeutic Communication… پنچ طرق تسهیل معالجوی صحبت بامریض
  • • Maintain patient-centered listening
  • • Suppress prejudice
  • • Create a therapeutic environment
  • • Be alert to nonverbal cues
  • • Establish a trusting relationship
  • حفظ شنیدن ازخود مریض
  • انحطاط تعصب
  • ایجاد محیط معالجوی
  • اگاهی داشتن به اشاره غیر لفظی مریض
  • تاسیس اعتماد کامل در روابط
1 question
1. Question
  • Maslow lived from ……… to …….. .
  • a) 1808-1870
  • b) 1908-1970
  • c) 1880-1907
  • d) 1907-1980
1 question1
1. Question
  • Maslow lived from ……… to …….. .
  • a) 1808-1870
  • b) 1908-1970
  • c) 1880-1907
  • d) 1907-1980
2 question
2. Question
  • Per Maslow, Psychopathology results by which of the following?
  • a) Poor economy
  • b) Illiteracy
  • c) The frustration of a human being’s essential nature
  • d) All
2 question1
2. Question
  • Per Maslow, Psychopathology results by which of the following?
  • a) Poor economy
  • b) Illiteracy
  • c) The frustration of a human being’s essential nature
  • d) All
3 question
3. Question
  • The following are the critical thoughts trends in nursing except for:
  • Humility
  • Integrity
  • Confidence
  • Implementation
3 question1
3. Question
  • The following are the critical thoughts trends in nursing except for:
  • Humility
  • Integrity
  • Confidence
  • Implementation
4 question
4. Question
  • Following are levels of critical thinking except for:
  • a) basic critical thinking
  • b) complex critical thinking
  • c) commitment
  • d) clinical decision making
4 question1
4. Question
  • Following are levels of critical thinking except for:
  • a) basic critical thinking
  • b) complex critical thinking
  • c) commitment
  • d) clinical decision making
5 question
5. Question
  • Why do we need to think critically?
  • a) To solve problems and find solutions
  • b) To be able to think creatively
  • c) To plan care for each patient client
  • d) All of the above
5 question1
5. Question
  • Why do we need to think critically?
  • a) To solve problems and find solutions
  • b) To be able to think creatively
  • c) To plan care for each patient client
  • d) All of the above
6 question
6. Question
  • Which of the following rights need to be applied by health care provider, when there is therapeutic communication and patient teaching exchanges?
  • a. Respect patient
  • b. Listening to patient
  • c. Focus on the patient
  • d. Asked-open ended questions
  • e. All of the above
6 question1
6. Question
  • Which of the following rights need to be applied by health care provider, when there is therapeutic communication and patient teaching exchanges?
  • a. Respect patient
  • b. Listening to patient
  • c. Focus on the patient
  • d. Asked-open ended questions
  • e. All of the above