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  1. Anxiety Disorders Panic attacks Phobias Obsessive-compulsive disorder

  2. Objectives • Break anxiety disorders into 3 categories • Describe panic disorders • Analyze fears and phobias • Synthesize obsessions and compulsions

  3. Anxiety and Panic • Generalized anxiety disorder is a continuous (majority of days- six month period) state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry and dread, apprehension, difficulties in concentration, and signs of motor tension • Some have G.A.D. Without having specific anxiety producing event

  4. chapter 11 Generalized anxiety disorder Continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry and dread, apprehension, difficulties in concentration, and signs of motor tension

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder in which a person who has experienced a traumatic or life-threatening event has symptoms such as psychic numbing, reliving of the trauma, and increased physiological arousal

  6. chapter 11 Posttraumatic stress disorder An anxiety disorder in which a person who has experienced a traumatic or life-threatening event has symptoms such as psychic numbing, reliving the trauma, and increased physiological arousal Diagnosed only if symptoms persist for six months or longer May immediately follow event or occur later

  7. PTSD Factors • 60% of American's surveyed- traumatic experience- 8% of men, 20% women develop PTSD • Huge genetic predisposition- Behavioral genetic studies of twins in general population and combat veterans • Prior family history of psychological problems, traumatic experiences with poor emotional adjustment • PTSD sufferers- hippocampus is apt to be smaller than average

  8. Panic Disorder • Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder in which a person experiences recurring panic attacks, periods of intense fear, and feelings of impending doom or death, accompanied by physiological symptoms such as rapid heart rate and dizziness

  9. chapter 11 Panic disorder An anxiety disorder in which a person experiences recurring panic attacks Panic attack: a feeling of impending doom or death, accompanied by physiological symptoms such as rapid breathing and dizziness

  10. Panic Disorder • Few minutes, more rarely hour • Chest pain, similar to heart attack • Usually occur after stress, prolonged emotion, specific worries, or frightening experiences • Throughout the world but culture a factor • Chocking, smothered= Latin America • Public places- Europe, America • Greenland- dizziness during kayak fishing

  11. Fears and Phobias • A phobia is an exaggerated , unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity, or object • Bugs, snakes, dogs, heights, the # 13, • vaguely afraid or can’t be in same room

  12. chapter 11 Fears and phobias Phobia An exaggerated, unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity, or object

  13. How get phobias? • Classical conditioning- fear of cats , scratched by cat • Observational learning- watching freighting event happen • Personality factors, cultural • Social phobia- anxious when observed by others- eating in restaurant , speaking to crowd, perform in font of others

  14. Phobias continued • Agoraphobia is a set of phobias, often set off by a panic attack, involving the basic fear of being away from a safe place or person • Agora – Greek open market • Specific fears, parties, driving in traffic, movie theater • Typically begins with panic attack seems to have no cause • Then avoid that situation

  15. chapter 11 Agoraphobia A set of phobias, often set off by a panic attack, involving the basic fear of being away from a safe place or person.

  16. Obsessions and compulsions • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder in which a person feels trapped in persistent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive, ritualized behaviors (compulsions) designed to reduce anxiety

  17. chapter 11 Obsessive-compulsive disorder An anxiety disorder in which a person feels trapped in repetitive, persistent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive, ritualized behaviors (compulsions) designed to reduce anxiety Person understands that the ritual behavior is senseless but guilt mounts if the behavior is not performed.

  18. OCD factors • Uncontrollable and interfere everyday life • People may feel frightened or repugnant: F.E. Thoughts of killing a child, contaminated by a handshake • Feel have no control over them: most common counting, touching, checking, hand washing • Prefrontal cortex is depleted of serotonin= cognitive rigidity- can’t let go of certain thoughts • Not a single unified disorder= subtype hoarders

  19. Science of OCD • Prefrontal cortex is depleted of serotonin= cognitive rigidity- can’t let go of certain thoughts • Not a single unified disorder= subtype- hoarders • PET scan shows obsessive hoarders have less activity in parts of brain that make decisions

  20. chapter 11 Your turn If you have the persistent thought that gremlins are sabotaging any airplane you are on or will be on, then you have a _____. If you cannot stop asking for more water during flights, then you have a _____. 1. Obsession; compulsion 2. Compulsion; obsession 3. Phobia; obsession 4. Plane ticket; pet camel

  21. chapter 11 Your turn If you have the persistent thought that gremlins are sabotaging any airplane you are on or will be on, then you have a _____. If you cannot stop asking for more water during flights, then you have a _____. 1. Obsession; compulsion 2. Compulsion; obsession 3. Phobia; obsession 4. Plane ticket; pet camel

  22. Summary • Panic attacks • Phobias • OCD