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RTA-Assisted GDPs. The Transition to NextGen. A fundamental change in Air Traffic Management NextGen is the mechanism for future flight control Today: ATC controller is central Manages separation with altitude, speed and direction instructions to pilots. Outdoor “Local” Control-Circa 1920’s.

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the transition to nextgen
The Transition to NextGen

A fundamental change in Air Traffic Management NextGen is the mechanism for future flight control

Today: ATC controller is central

Manages separation with altitude, speed and direction instructions to pilots

Outdoor “Local” Control-Circa 1920’s

the transition to nextgen con t
The Transition to NextGen-Con’t

NextGen: Highly dependent on aircraft avionics

Trajectory Based Operations, 4-D contract, Self Separation (Delegated Separation)

Customer control

Controller manages by exception

How do we make the transition?

CLE Tower “Local” Control-Circa 1930’s

how do we begin
How do We Begin?

Start by using existing hardware and software

Changes here require an evolution plan

Initially change procedures only

Improve operational efficiency

Immediate benefits, create advocates

Change attitudes

Pilot, Dispatcher, and Controller as partners

RTA-Assisted GDPs can help here

rta assisted gdps5
RTA-Assisted GDPs

Basic procedure (differences in brown)

FAA issues GDP

AOC gets CTA from TFMS

AOC computes fuel efficient ETE, subtracts it from CTA, sets EDCT appropriately

The Shrimp Boat Fleet is manually moved across the screen to display aircraft position-Circa 1950’s

rta assisted gdps con t
RTA-Assisted GDPs-Con’t

AOC gets Estimated Arrival Fix crossing Time (EAFT) consistent with CTA from FSM

AOC communicates EAFT to pilot

Pilot enters arrival fix and EAFT into FMC as an required time of arrival (RTA)

As much as feasible, pilot lets FMC set speed to hit RTA

When aircraft hit TMA/TBFM freeze horizon GDP RTA is disregarded

ARTS III Brought ATC into the Automation Age-Circa 1970’s

time line for today s gdps
Time Line for Today’s GDPs

Original schedule

ETE optimized for fuel and schedule

IGTD

IGTA

GDP adds delay

ETE optimized for fuel and schedule

EDCT

CTA

FOC adjusts speed

ETE optimized for fuel burn

EDCT

CTA

Pilot speeds up

ETE reduced to make up time

ETA

EDCT

Airborne holding at APT

EDCT

AZ

time line for rta assisted gdps
Time Line for RTA-Assisted GDPs

Original schedule

ETE optimized for fuel and schedule

IGTD

IGTA

GDP adds delay

ETE optimized for fuel and schedule

EDCT

CTA

FOC adjusts speed

ETE optimized for fuel burn

EDCT

CTA

FMS manages speed

ETE set by FMS to hit arrival fix at EAFT

EAFT/RTA

CTA

EDCT

TMA takes control

FMS manages aircraft to freeze horizon

STA

EDCT

Freeze horizon

initiating rta assisted gdps
Initiating RTA-Assisted GDPs

A series of operational trials will precede any attempts to ‘deploy’ these procedures widely

Goals of the trials

Work out effective procedures

Identify and address potential problems

Establish a clear “benefits” case

Prepare information for training programs

airline only trials
Airline-Only Trials

Some airlines are eager to initiate RTA-Assisted GDPs

Begin with airline-only trials: Goals

Have airline procedures well established first

Identify major ATC impacts on RTA-Assisted GDPs

Focus later ATC involvement on high-impact ATC locations and actions

operational trial locations timing and participation
Operational Trial Locations, Timing, and Participation

Who: Virgin America (VX) & American Airlines (AA)

Through discussions within the GDPE group and other CDM contacts, several airlines expressed interest in participating in early RTA-Assisted GDPs trials.

Explanation of methodologies contained in the following slides.

Where: San Francisco (SFO & ORD) –

SFO was picked as the location due to its nature of having GDPs to deal with the marine stratus in the morning.

ORD was picked because of Summer and Fall convective activities

When: TBD

preparations for the trial
Preparations for the Trial

Airline preparations

Brief pilots on the goal of RTA-Assisted GDPs and the procedures required.

Brief dispatch teams on their roles.

FAA preparations

AJR notify AJE on the nature and purpose of the trials but controllers continue business as usual

Metron preparations

Prepare data collection sheets for airline

Develop analysis methodology prior to the trials for rapid turn-around

airline roles aoc c
Airline Roles: AOC-C

The AOC Coordinator has overall responsibility for the trial

Determines when to perform trials based on the weather, as well as the airline’s business needs.

Informs the dispatch team when the trial will begin,

Selects participating flights based on available crews.

Responsible for communicating metering point information for each flight to the dispatcher

May participate in the decision to have a flight drop out of the trial, as in stop trying to achieve its scheduled time of arrival (STA) at the metering point.

Responsible for cancelling the trial if appropriate

Not working as expected,

Damaging the carrier’s business objectives

Compromising safety.

airline roles flight dispatcher
Airline Roles: Flight Dispatcher

The dispatcher is responsible for helping each flight in the test meet its objectives.

Will pass on the metering point information (fix and STA) to the flight crew

Channel to be chosen by the airline (ACARS, Flight Plan)

Collect and record all information from the flight relevant to the trial during en route phase of the flight

Use data sheets as provided

Participate in the decision to have a flight drop out of the trial

airline roles flight crew
Airline Roles: Flight Crew

The flight crew will execute the actual RTA-Assisted GDPs procedures.

Upon being notified by dispatch of its inclusion in the trial, determine if they can safely participate, and inform the dispatcher

Enter metering information into their FMS.

Use the FMS to identify and achieve its STA,

Safety takes precedence

ATC directives take precedence

Communicate ATC directives that impact its ability to achieve its STA (speed controls, vectoring, route changes, etc.) to the dispatcher.

Decide, with the dispatcher, if and when to drop out of the experiment

Cannot safely and efficiently reach its RTA

airline only trial phase 1
Airline-Only Trial Phase - 1

Phase 1 – 1-18 June 2010

Focus on the operations during a GDP at one airport with a predictable terminal constraint

SFO marine stratus GDPs

Virgin America (VX)

Duration of this phase will be determined

by the data gathered from the trial.

When a trial produces no new

significant information move on to the next phase

Review data and prepare for Phase 2

airline only trial phases 2
Airline-Only Trial Phases - 2

Phase 2 –7-23 July 2010

Continue with operations at SFO,

Engage two carriers (VX, AA)

Analyze the operations between two separate AOCs utilizing RTAs for GDPs

Identify any impediments produced by this.

The duration of this phase will be determined by the data gathered from the trial,

airline only trial phase 3
Airline-Only Trial Phase -3

Phase 3 – 16 August-10 September 2010

Move location from SFO to Chicago O’Hare (ORD)

Less predictable convective weather GDPs

Continue operations with VX, AA, and other interested airlines

Could add additional customers as volunteers

Focus will be to analyze the effects of en route severe weather conditions impact the ability of a flight to achieve its STA

conclusion
Conclusion

Need to map out the transition path for NAS operations

What are the steps along the way?

How does TMA’s role evolve?

Proper partitioning of control among ATC, AOC, and cockpit

What role does ground delay play?

EDCTs, MIT, TMA

post operations analysis
Post Operations Analysis

Main objective of the trials

Gain insight into making RTA-Assisted GDPs a regular procedure with GDPs.

Derive lessons learned, and operating guidelines that can be conveyed to operators in future trials

Evolving into a national deployment plan.

Archived TFMS flight data will allow track each flight’s progress

Metron’s Vectoring Delays Processor to determine when and where participating flights received en route delays.

Map track info to recorded ATC actions to give insight as to causes and effects of ATC directives

Develop a set of performance metrics from the trial, including:

Fuel burn

Additional dispatcher workload

STA compliance

CTA compliance

Dropout Counts

success criteria
Success Criteria

All phases of this trial will be considered successful if we are able to achieve the following:

Extract Meaningful Feedback – Discuss with the pilots as well as the AOC coordinator and dispatchers how the trial went, and help identify areas for improvement

Develop an Adequate Data Set – Gather enough information on enough flights to be able to execute analysis, specifically on GDP controlled flights vs. RTA-Assisted GDPs operated flights on a compliance level.

Map ATC Actions – Correlate ATC reports along with data from VDP to identify time and space of en route ATC actions

Evaluate to impact of ATC actions – Identify a relationship between flights that received specific ATC actions and their success in meeting RTA objectives

A subjective measure of the success of the concept will be whether the airlines involved wish to continue the RTA-Assisted GDPs on their own and to continue to participate in the program

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