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Today’s Students. The Nation Goes to College. “A college degree has in many ways become what a high school diploma became 100-years ago-the path to a successful career and to knowledgeable citizenship.” (AAC & U, 2002, p. viii). Today’s Students. “Traditional” college student

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the nation goes to college
The Nation Goes to College

“A college degree has in many ways become what a high school diploma became 100-years ago-the path to a successful career and to knowledgeable citizenship.”

(AAC & U, 2002, p. viii)

today s students4
Today’s Students
  • “Traditional” college student
    • White male, 18 to 20 years old
    • Attending a four-year, liberal arts college
    • Full-time, and living on campus
  • Is now the minority in higher education

(Magolda & Terenzini)

today s students5
Today’s Students
  • Majority of undergraduates are women
  • 28 % of undergraduates are from under-represented groups
  • Vocational emphasis valued over learning for learning’s sake
  • “Overwhelmed and more damaged”

(Magolda & Terenzini)

today s students6
Today’s Students
  • Consumer mentality
  • Diverse and divided
  • Pragmatic, career oriented, and committed to doing well
  • Optimistic about personal/collective futures
  • Desperately committed to preserving the American dream

(Levine & Cureton, 1998, p. 156-157)

today s students7
Today’s Students
  • 75% of full-time students are employed
  • 46% of those work at least 25 hours per week & 20% at least 35 hrs per week
  • Work hurts students grades (42%), limits their class schedules (53%) and choice of classes (38%)
increased access
Increased Access
  • 75% of high school graduates continue their studies
  • 90% of high school seniors expect to attend college
  • Growing number of college students are over age twenty-five

(AAC & U, 2002, p. 2)

different attendance patterns
Different Attendance Patterns
  • 58% of bachelor’s degree recipients attend two or more colleges
  • 28% of undergraduates attend part-time
  • 73% of undergraduates are non- traditional students

(AAC & U, 2002, p. 2)

today s students10
Today’s Students
  • Learning styles & preferences
    • Motivation & students’ learning styles
  • Visual & Kinesthetic
  • Positive view of technology & their ability to use it
  • Reading & the web
    • “slow, painful and torturous” vs. “ease & speed”

KateManual

today s students11
Today’s Students
  • Need to see “Big Picture” before disaggregating
  • Mass customization
  • Low threshold for boredom
  • Multitasking
  • They learn from each other

Kate Manual

today s students12
Today’s Students
  • Aliterate
  • Random access of information, less linear, likes graphics
  • Self focused
  • “Prove it to me” mentality
  • Wants something in exchange

Susan Eisner

today s students13
Today’s Students
  • Independent
    • employment & discretionary income
  • Bypasses mainstream media
  • Relevance is important
  • Experience without obvious payoffs are frustrating
  • Responds well to “coaching”

Susan Eisner

today s students14
Today’s Students
  • Effective efforts focus on students’ learning styles & preferences
  • Before “buying-in” students must see tangible benefits, in terms of their needs
  • High need for clarity, low tolerance for ambiguity (directions clear & succinct)

Brown, Murphy & Nanny

today s students15
Today’s Students

Higher education may be a part of students’ lives,

but

in many cases it is

NOT

the central focus of their lives.

preparation lags
Preparation Lags
  • Only 47% of HS graduates complete a college prep curricula
  • Only 40% of HS teachers hold performance expectations that result in college-ready students
  • 53% of all college students take remedial courses (AAC & U, 2002, p. xxx)
college reading readiness
College Reading Readiness
  • Only 51% of 2005 ACT tested high school graduates have college-level reading skills
  • Reading readiness– over a 75% chance of a C or better, a 50% chance of a B or better in reading-dependent first-year courses
  • Reading readiness peaked at 55% 1999
rising to the challenge
Rising to the Challenge
  • 40% of HS graduates are not prepared:
    • 39% of college students & HS graduates report gaps in their skills and abilities
    • 35% of college students & 39% of HS graduates have large gaps in at least one crucial skill; 86% of both groups have some gaps.
    • College instructors---42% of their students are not adequately prepared.
    • Employers---39% of HS graduates are not prepared for their current job & 45% are unprepared for advancement.
most grads cite gaps in at least one skill
Most Grads Cite Gaps In At Least One Skill

35% of college students report large gaps in at least one area,

86% report some gaps in at least one area.

Oral communication/public speaking

Science

Mathematics

Doing research

Quality of writing that is expected

Reading/understandingcomplicated materials

12% large gaps/struggling15% large gaps/struggling

11%14%

13%16%

10%13%

9%10%

5%9%

employers instructors dissatisfied with high schools skills prep

College instructors

Employers/Instructors Dissatisfied With High Schools’ Skills Prep

Employers

25% very dissatisfied

22% very dissatisfied

24% very dissatisfied

20% very dissatisfied

Reading/understandingcomplicated materials

Quality of writing that is expected

Doing research

Mathematics

Oral communication/public speaking

Science

employers instructors dissatisfied with high schools skills prep21

College instructors

Employers/Instructors Dissatisfied With High Schools’ Skills Prep

Employers

29% very dissatisfied

22% very dissatisfied16% very dissatisfied

17% very dissatisfied

Thinking analytically

Work and study habits

Applying what is learned in school to solving problems

Computer skills

slide22
How do you know your students & graduates have the information skills they will need?
slide24

Learning ObjectivesBehavioral ObjectivesInstructional ObjectivesPerformance ObjectivesCompetencies Objectives

align your outcomes
Align your Outcomes

MissionObjective/GoalOutcomes

Institutional outcomes

Program outcomes

Course outcomes

Class outcomes

questions to facilitate learning
Questions to Facilitate Learning
  • What do you want students to be able to do?
  • What do students need to know in order to do this well?
  • What activity will facilitate their learning?
  • How will students demonstrate their learning?
  • How will I know students have done this well?

Debra Gilchrist

learning objectives
Learning Objectives

A statement in specific and measurable terms that describes what students will know or be able to do as a result of engaging in a learning activity.

Their purpose is to communicate expectations.

learning objectives28
Learning Objectives
  • Communicate expectations in terms of student learning
    • Audience Students will be able to…
    • Behavior Specific observable actions,
    • Condition Circumstances, tools,
    • Degree Performance level, standard
learning objectives29
Learning Objectives

A statement of what students will be able to do when they have completed instruction

Objectives are:

  • Related to intended outcomes, Not processes
  • Specific and measurable, Not broad and intangible
  • Concerned with students, Not faculty

Arreola, 1998, p2

why learning objectives
Why Learning Objectives
  • Makes teaching and learning efficient
  • Focuses on students
  • Describes what students are expected to achieve as a result of instruction
  • Students know what is expected of them
  • Makes assessment of learning easier
why learning objectives31
Why Learning Objectives
  • Knowing where you want to go, increases the chances of getting there
  • Guidance for the planning and delivery of instruction as well as the evaluation of student learning
  • Provides a focus for students
  • Allows for analysis in terms of the levels of teaching and learning
cognitive level of objectives
Cognitive Level of Objectives
  • Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • Evaluation
    • Synthesis
    • Analysis
    • Application
    • Comprehension
    • Knowledge
cognitive level of objectives33
Cognitive Level of Objectives
  • Bloom’s TaxonomyLevel
    • Evaluation Application
    • Synthesis Application
    • Analysis Application
    • Application Application
    • Comprehension Understanding
    • Knowledge Knowledge
bloom s taxonomy of objectives
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Objectives

LevelLearning Verbs

  • Evaluation Criticizes, compares, concludes
  • Synthesis Creates, formulates, revises
  • Analysis Differentiates, diagrams,
  • Application Demonstrates, computes, solves
  • Comprehension Explains, summarizes, classifies
  • Knowledge Identifies, defines, describes
learning verbs for bloom s taxonomy
Learning Verbs forBloom’s Taxonomy
  • Compare & contrast,

critique, justify

Evaluating

  • Adapt, combine, compare, contrast, design, generate

Synthesizing

Analyzing

  • Correlate, diagram, distinguish, outline, infer

Applying

  • Determine, develop, compute, utilize
  • Classify, explain, discuss, give examples, summarize

Comprehending

Knowing

  • Define, describe, list, reproduce, enumerate
when writing objectives
When Writing Objectives

Avoid imprecise verbs open to interpretation:

Appreciate

Believe

Familiarize

Grasp

Know

Learn

Understand

effective learning objectives
Effective Learning Objectives
  • Consistent with curricular goals
  • Clearly & unambiguously stated
  • Clearly observable & measurable
  • Realistic & doable
  • Appropriate for the level of students
  • Relevant & worth doing
  • Challenging & interesting
writing learning objectives
Writing Learning Objectives
  • Identify what students are to learn
  • Identify what students are to do
  • Draft & revise as necessary
  • Are specific and clear
  • Are observable & measurable
  • Strive for higher order thinking
how to write learning objectives
How to Write Learning Objectives
  • Express them in terms of observable behavior
    • Facilitates assessment of learning
  • Objectives should answer these questions:
    • What must students do to prove that they have learned?
    • What should students be able to do as a consequence of their learning?
example
Example

Familiarize students with research articles.

Students will be able to read a research article.

example42
Example

Students will be able to identify the elements of a research article and explain the purpose of each element.

example43
Example

In order to write more effective literature reviews, students will read and evaluate reviews written by other students. Using a rubric, students will note what features of a review make it good and what features make it less good.

Stoloff