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Chapter 16 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. We Waste Huge Amounts of Energy (1). Energy efficiency Advantages of reducing energy waste: Quick and clean Usually the cheapest to provide more energy Reduce pollution and degradation Slow global warming

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Chapter 16 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy


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chapter 16 energy efficiency and renewable energy
Chapter 16

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

we waste huge amounts of energy 1
We Waste Huge Amounts of Energy (1)
  • Energy efficiency
  • Advantages of reducing energy waste:
    • Quick and clean
    • Usually the cheapest to provide more energy
    • Reduce pollution and degradation
    • Slow global warming
    • Increase economic and national security
we waste huge amounts of energy 2
We Waste Huge Amounts of Energy (2)
  • Four widely used devices that waste energy
    • Incandescent light bulb
    • Motor vehicle with internal combustion engine
    • Nuclear power plant
    • Coal-fired power plant
we can save energy and money in industry and utilities 1
We Can Save Energy and Money in Industry and Utilities (1)
  • Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP)
    • Two forms of energy from same fuel source
  • Replace energy-wasting electric motors
  • Recycling materials
  • Switch from low-efficiency incandescent lighting to higher-efficiency fluorescent and LED lighting
slide7
LEDs

Fig. 16-4, p. 401

we can save energy and money in industry and utilities 2
We Can Save Energy and Money in Industry and Utilities (2)
  • Electrical grid system: outdated and wasteful
  • Utility companies switching from promote use of energy to promoting energy efficiency
    • Spurred by state utility commissions
case study saving energy and money with a smarter electrical grid
Case Study: Saving Energy and Money with a Smarter Electrical Grid
  • Smart grid
    • Ultra-high-voltage
    • Super-efficient transmission lines
    • Digitally controlled
    • Responds to local changes in demand and supply
    • Two-way flow of energy and information
    • Smart meters show consumers how much energy each appliance uses
  • U.S cost -- $200-$800 billion; save $100 billion/year
proposed u s smart grid
Proposed U.S. Smart Grid

Figure 20, Supplement 8

we can save energy and money in transportation
We Can Save Energy and Money in Transportation
  • Corporate average fuel standards (CAFE) standards
    • Fuel economy standards lower in the U.S. countries
    • Fuel-efficient cars are on the market
  • Hidden prices in gasoline: $12/gallon
    • Car manufacturers and oil companies lobby to prevent laws to raise fuel taxes
  • Should there be a feebate?
more energy efficient vehicles are on the way
More Energy-Efficient Vehicles Are on the Way
  • Superefficient and ultralight cars
  • Gasoline-electric hybrid car
  • Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle
  • Energy-efficient diesel car
  • Electric vehicle with a fuel cell
solutions a hybrid gasoline electric engine car and a plug in hybrid car
Solutions: A Hybrid-Gasoline-Electric Engine Car and a Plug-in Hybrid Car

Fig. 16-6, p. 403

science focus the search for better batteries
Science Focus: The Search for Better Batteries
  • Current obstacles
    • Storage capacity
    • Overheating
    • Flammability
    • Cost
  • In the future
    • Lithium-ion battery
    • Viral battery
    • Ultracapacitor
we can design buildings that save energy and money
We Can Design Buildings That Save Energy and Money
  • Green architecture
  • Living or green roofs
  • Superinsulation
  • U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
a green roof in chicago
A Green Roof in Chicago

Fig. 16-8, p. 405

why are we still wasting so much energy
Why Are We Still Wasting So Much Energy?
  • Energy remains artificially cheap
    • Government subsidies
    • Tax breaks
    • Prices don’t include true cost
  • Few large and long-lasting incentives
    • Tax breaks
    • Rebates
    • Low-interest loans
we can use renewable energy to provide heat and electricity
We Can Use Renewable Energy to Provide Heat and Electricity
  • Renewable energy
    • Solar energy: direct or indirect
    • Geothermal energy
  • Benefits of shifting toward renewable energy
  • Renewable energy cheaper if we eliminate
    • Inequitable subsidies
    • Inaccurate prices
    • Artificially low pricing of nonrenewable energy
we can heat buildings and water with solar energy
We Can Heat Buildings and Water with Solar Energy
  • Passive solar heating system
  • Active solar heating system
we can cool buildings naturally
We Can Cool Buildings Naturally
  • Technologies available
    • Open windows when cooler outside
    • Use fans
    • Superinsulation and high-efficiency windows
    • Overhangs or awnings on windows
    • Light-colored roof
    • Geothermal pumps
we can use sunlight to produce high temperature heat and electricity
We Can Use Sunlight to Produce High-Temperature Heat and Electricity
  • Solar thermal systems
    • Central receiver system
    • Collect sunlight to boil water, generate electricity
    • 1% of world deserts could supply all the world’s electricity
    • Require large amounts of water – could limit
      • Wet cooling
      • Dry cooling
  • Low net energy yields
we can use sunlight to produce electricity 1
We Can Use Sunlight to Produce Electricity (1)
  • Photovoltaic (PV) cells (solar cells)
    • Convert solar energy to electric energy
  • Design of solar cells
    • Sunlight hits cells and releases electrons into wires
  • Benefits of using solar cells
  • Solar-cell power plants around the world
we can use sunlight to produce electricity 2
We Can Use Sunlight to Produce Electricity (2)
  • Key problems
    • High cost of producing electricity
    • Need to be located in sunny desert areas
    • Fossil fuels used in production
    • Solar cells contain toxic materials
  • Will the cost drop with
    • Mass production
    • New designs
    • Government subsidies and tax breaks
we can use sunlight to produce electricity 3
We Can Use Sunlight to Produce Electricity (3)
  • 2040: could solar cells produce 16%?
  • Nanosolar: California (U.S.)
  • Germany: huge investment in solar cell technology
  • General Electric: entered the solar cell market
trade offs solar cells
Trade-Offs: Solar Cells

Fig. 16-21, p. 414

we can produce electricity from falling and flowing water
We Can Produce Electricity from Falling and Flowing Water
  • Hydropower
    • Uses kinetic energy of moving water
    • Indirect form of solar energy
    • World’s leading renewable energy source used to produce electricity
  • Advantages and disadvantages
  • Micro-hydropower generators
tides and waves can be used to produce electricity
Tides and Waves Can Be Used to Produce Electricity
  • Produce electricity from flowing water
    • Ocean tides and waves
  • So far, power systems are limited
  • Disadvantages
    • Few suitable sites
    • High costs
    • Equipment damaged by storms and corrosion
using wind to produce electricity is an important step toward sustainability 1
Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (1)
  • Wind: indirect form of solar energy
    • Captured by turbines
    • Converted into electrical energy
  • Second fastest-growing source of energy
  • What is the global potential for wind energy?
  • Wind farms: on land and offshore
world electricity from wind energy
World Electricity from Wind Energy

Figure 12, Supplement 9

wind turbine
Wind Turbine

Fig. 16-24, p. 417

using wind to produce electricity is an important step toward sustainability 2
Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (2)
  • Countries with the highest total installed wind power capacity
    • Germany
    • United States
    • Spain
    • India
    • Denmark
  • Installation is increasing in several other countries
using wind to produce electricity is an important step toward sustainability 3
Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (3)
  • Advantages of wind energy
  • Drawbacks
    • Windy areas may be sparsely populated – need to develop grid system to transfer electricity
    • Winds die down; need back-up energy
    • Storage of wind energy
    • Kills migratory birds
    • “Not in my backyard”
trade offs wind power
Trade-Offs: Wind Power

Fig. 16-25, p. 418

united states wind power potential
United States Wind Power Potential

Figure 24, Supplement 8

we can get energy by burning solid biomass
We Can Get Energy by Burning Solid Biomass
  • Biomass
    • Plant materials and animal waste we can burn or turn into biofuels
  • Production of solid mass fuel
    • Plant fast-growing trees
    • Biomass plantations
    • Collect crop residues and animal manure
  • Advantages and disadvantages
trade offs solid biomass
Trade-Offs: Solid Biomass

Fig. 16-26, p. 420

we can convert plants and plant wastes to liquid biofuels 1
We Can Convert Plants and Plant Wastes to Liquid Biofuels (1)
  • Liquid biofuels
    • Biodiesel
    • Ethanol
  • Biggest producers of biofuel
    • The United States
    • Brazil
    • The European Union
    • China
we can convert plants and plant wastes to liquid biofuels 2
We Can Convert Plants and Plant Wastes to Liquid Biofuels (2)
  • Major advantages over gasoline and diesel fuel produced from oil
    • Biofuel crops can be grown almost anywhere
    • No net increase in CO2 emissions if managed properly
    • Available now
we can convert plants and plant wastes to liquid biofuels 3
We Can Convert Plants and Plant Wastes to Liquid Biofuels (3)
  • Studies warn of problems:
    • Decrease biodiversity
    • Increase soil degrading, erosion, and nutrient leaching
    • Push farmers off their land
    • Raise food prices
    • Reduce water supplies, especially for corn and soy
case study is biodiesel the answer
Case Study: Is Biodiesel the Answer?
  • Biodiesel production from vegetable oil from various sources
  • 95% produced by the European Union
  • Subsidies promote rapid growth in United States
  • Advantages and disadvantages
trade offs biodiesel
Trade-Offs: Biodiesel

Fig. 16-27, p. 421

world ethanol production
World Ethanol Production

Figure 13, Supplement 9

trade offs ethanol fuel
Trade-Offs: Ethanol Fuel

Fig. 16-30, p. 423

case study getting gasoline and diesel fuel from algae and bacteria 1
Case Study: Getting Gasoline and Diesel Fuel from Algae and Bacteria (1)
  • Algae remove CO2 and convert it to oil
    • Not compete for cropland = not affect food prices
    • Wastewater/sewage treatment plants
    • Could transfer CO2 from power plants
  • Algae challenges
    • Need to lower costs
    • Open ponds vs. bioreactors
    • Affordable ways of extracting oil
    • Scaling to large production
case study getting gasoline and diesel fuel from algae and bacteria 2
Case Study: Getting Gasoline and Diesel Fuel from Algae and Bacteria (2)
  • Bacteria: synthetic biology
    • Convert sugarcane juice to biodiesel
    • Need large regions growing sugarcane
  • Producing fuels from algae and bacteria can be done almost anywhere
getting energy from the earth s internal heat 1
Getting Energy from the Earth’s Internal Heat (1)
  • Geothermal energy: heat stored in
    • Soil
    • Underground rocks
    • Fluids in the earth’s mantle
  • Geothermal heat pump system
    • Energy efficient and reliable
    • Environmentally clean
    • Cost effective to heat or cool a space
getting energy from the earth s internal heat 2
Getting Energy from the Earth’s Internal Heat (2)
  • Hydrothermal reservoirs
    • U.S. is the world’s largest producer
  • Hot, dry rock
  • Geothermal energy problems
    • High cost of tapping hydrothermal reservoirs
    • Dry- or wet-steam geothermal reservoirs could be depleted
    • Could create earthquakes
geothermal sites worldwide
Geothermal Sites Worldwide

Figure 25, Supplement 8

will hydrogen save us 1
Will Hydrogen Save Us? (1)
  • Hydrogen as a fuel
    • Eliminate most of the air pollution problems
    • Reduce threats of global warming
  • Some challenges
    • Chemically locked in water and organic compounds = net negative energy yield
    • Expensive fuel cells are the best way to use hydrogen
    • CO2 levels dependent on method of hydrogen production
will hydrogen save us 2
Will Hydrogen Save Us? (2)
  • Net negative energy yield
  • Production and storage of H2
  • Hydrogen-powered vehicles: prototypes available
  • Can we produce hydrogen on demand?
  • Larger fuel cells – fuel-cell stacks
economics politics education and sustainable energy resources
Economics, Politics, Education, and Sustainable Energy Resources
  • Government strategies:
    • Keep the prices of selected energy resources artificially low to encourage their use
    • Keep energy prices artificially high for selected resources to discourage their use
    • Consumer education