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Echinoderms. By Hillary Goins Zoology 8 th Period. Basic Info on Echinoderms. Approximately 6,000 species Found in all oceans of the world Move by suction cup appendages and have skin covered with tiny, jaw-like pincers; their tube feet allow them to break open the shells of bivalves

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by hillary goins zoology 8 th period

Echinoderms

By Hillary Goins

Zoology

8th Period

slide2

Basic Info on Echinoderms

  • Approximately 6,000 species
  • Found in all oceans of the world
  • Move by suction cup appendages and have skin covered with tiny, jaw-like pincers; their tube feet allow them to break open the shells of bivalves
  • All have bumpy endoskeletons covered by a thin epidermis
  • Endoskeleton is primarily made up of calcium carbonate
  • Echinoderms use a jaw-like pedicellariae for protection and for cleaning the surface of theirbody
  • They have radial symmetry which enables echinoderms to sense from all directions
  • Contains a water vascular system that allows them to move, exchange gases, capture food, and excrete wastes
slide3

CONT’ Basic Info on Echinoderms

  • Gases are exchanged and wastes are eliminated by diffusion through the tube feet
  • Simple nervous system
  • All echinoderms have a mouth, stomach, and intestines
  • Do not have a head or brain, but they do have a central nerve ring that surrounds the mouth; They have a nerve ring that extends down the rays
  • Have cells to detect light and touch, but they so not have sensory organs except for Sea stars
  • Have bilaterally symmetrical larvae
slide4

Class Asteroidea

  • Common name: Sea Star
  • 1500 species
  • Most have 5 rays, but some may contain up to 40 or more
  • Only echinoderm that contains sensory organs
  • Carnivorous and also eat worms or mollusks such as clams
  • Contain tapering arms called rays
  • Rays are tapered and extended from the central disk
slide5

Class Ophiuroidea

  • Common name: Brittle Stars
  • 2,000 species
  • Extremely fragile
  • The rays of a brittle star will break if you pick them up, therefore this is an adaptation to protecting itself from predators
  • Rays will regenerate in weeks
  • Do not use their tube feet to move, instead they propel in a slithering motion of their rays.
  • Feed on dead decaying matter
  • They use their tube feet to get food particles into their mouth
slide6

Class Echinoidea

Sea urchins

Sand dollars

Approximately 950 species of Echinoids

  • Look like pincushions
  • Disk shaped body covered with spines
  • Don’t have rays
  • They have long slender tube feet
  • Their spines protect them from predators
  • Contains poisonous fluid that are located at the tips of the spines
  • The spines help allow the Sea urchins to move and burrow into the sand/ground
  • Globe or disk-shaped body with spines
  • Don’t have rays
  • Skeletons have a flower shape with 5 petals
  • Living sand dollars are covered with hair-like spines that are lost when the organism dies
  • Their tube feet are modified into gills
  • Also, their tube feet on the bottom surface of their body helps to bring organic particles found in the sand into its mouth
slide7

Class Holothuroidea

  • Known as Sea cucumbers because of their vegetable cucumber shape
  • Have a leathery covering that allows it to be very flexible
  • Move by using tentacles and tube feet
  • Reproduce by releasing eggs and sperm into water and then fertilization takes place
  • For protection, Sea cucumbers create a sticky mass of tubes through the anus, or they may rupture, releasing internal organs. This confuses the predator so the Sea cucumber can make its escape.
  • Feed on dead decaying matter
  • About 1500 species
slide8

Class Crinoidea

  • Consists of Sea lilies and Feather stars
  • Approximately 600 species
  • Sea lilies are sessile as adults and Feather stars are only sessile in their larval form
  • Capture food particles with their tube feet and move it to their mouth
  • Feather stars use feathery arms to move place to place

Feather Star