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  1. Nursery Production Randy Zondag The Ohio State University Extension-Lake County Tree Survival School 2010

  2. Information on this Program • My Website : http://lake.osu.edu http://hcs.osu.edu/basicgreen • Links Weather stations Pest Management Information Programs

  3. Understanding Nursery Production What is a nursery ? How do they produce plants . How do you buy plants . How do you transport plants.

  4. Healthy Plants • Friable soils • Proper nutrient balance • Proper soil pH – acid vs. alkaline • Proper root and crown spacing • Ample soil moisture • Proper soil temperature • Proper light levels • Pure air • Free of insects and diseases

  5. Soil is…..loose surface of the earth as distinguished from solid rock. 25% 45% 25% 5% Source: Western Fertilizer Handbook

  6. Physical Properties Soil Texture, Consistency, & Structure Soil Compaction (Bulk Density) Soil Moisture Chemical Properties pH Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) Mineral Nutrient Availability Biological Properties Microorganisms bacteria fungi (e.g. mycorrhizas) protozoa nematodes Macroorganisms arthropods earthworms nematodes Decomposition / Nutrient Recycling Aeration Aggregation (e.g. “microbial glue”) SOIL: From the Ground, Up! Soil Properties:

  7. Four Release Modes in Fertilizer

  8. You Fertilizer with a Nitrogen Fertilizer Close to the Herbicide Application. You may have increased microbial action or salinity that breaks down the herbicide

  9. Add organic matter Increased biological activity (& diversity) Decomposition Reduced soil-borne diseases Aggregation increased Pore structure improved Nutrients released Humus and other growth promoting substances Improved tilth & water storage Harmful substance detoxified Healthy Plants ORGANIC … MATTERS!

  10. Rate at Which Water Moves in the Soil Soil Types Infiltration rates (inches/hour) Sand >0.8 Sandy &silty soils 0.4 to 0.8 Loams 0.2 to 0.4 Clay soils 0.04 to 0.2

  11. HISTORY OF DRAINAGE

  12. You Failed to Incorporate the Herbicide with Cultivation or Irrigation Many preemergence herbicides require up to ¾ inches of water to be activated

  13. What is Our Ultimate Goal?

  14. Nursery TreesHow Do We Buy Them? Balled and Burlapped (B&B) Containerized Bare Root- Liners, Transplants

  15. Field Grown ( B&B) • Grown in native soils • Roots are cut with shovels • The ball is covered with burlap • Up to 80+ percent of the root system can be removed

  16. Container Plants • Grown in artifical media • Rapid root growth • Depth of planting • Soils different than the planting site • Dries out fast • Need to fertilizer often

  17. Hydrological Discontinuity

  18. Bare Root Plants • Grown in the field or in soil less media • The plants have the soil removed from the roots • This is usually done during dormant periods unless there is a large maintenance budget available

  19. How are Plants Propagated ? • Seeds • source • Cuttings • –Stem or Root • Grafts • Tissue Culture • Which Type will give you diversity?

  20. How are Plants Propagated ? • Seeds • source • Cuttings • –Stem or Root • Grafts • Tissue Culture

  21. Seed Grown • Genetic variation • Takes the most time • Least expensive

  22. How are Plants Propagated ? • Seeds • source • Cuttings • –Stem or Root • Grafts • Tissue Culture

  23. Cutting Grown Trees • Stems are rooted • Roots are forced to grow stems • Offspring look like parents

  24. How are Plants Propagated ? • Seeds • source • Cuttings • –Stem or Root • Grafts • Tissue Culture

  25. Grafting • Bind a Scion to a rootstock • Hardiness, size, pest resistance

  26. How are Plants Propagated ? • Seeds • source • Cuttings • –Stem or Root • Grafts • Tissue Culture

  27. Tissue Culture • Same genetics as parents • Rapid reproduction • Expensive

  28. How are Plants Propagated ? • Seeds • source • Cuttings • –Stem or Root • Grafts • Tissue Culture • Which Type will give you diversity?

  29. Planting Tree planted 4 years ago: burlap was not removed from ball, and roots failed to penetrate burlap

  30. Transporting Nursery Plants