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Nursery Production. Randy Zondag The Ohio State University Extension- Lake County. Tree Survival School 2010. Information on this Program. My Website : http://lake.osu.edu http://hcs.osu.edu/basicgreen Links Weather stations Pest Management Information Programs.

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nursery production

Nursery Production

Randy Zondag

The Ohio State University Extension-Lake County

Tree Survival School 2010

information on this program
Information on this Program
  • My Website :

http://lake.osu.edu

http://hcs.osu.edu/basicgreen

  • Links

Weather stations

Pest Management Information

Programs

understanding nursery production
Understanding Nursery Production

What is a nursery ?

How do they produce plants .

How do you buy plants .

How do you transport plants.

slide5

Healthy Plants

  • Friable soils
  • Proper nutrient balance
  • Proper soil pH – acid vs. alkaline
  • Proper root and crown spacing
  • Ample soil moisture
  • Proper soil temperature
  • Proper light levels
  • Pure air
  • Free of insects and diseases
slide6

Soil is…..loose surface of the earth as distinguished from solid rock.

25%

45%

25%

5%

Source: Western Fertilizer Handbook

slide7
Physical Properties

Soil Texture, Consistency, & Structure

Soil Compaction (Bulk Density)

Soil Moisture

Chemical Properties

pH

Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)

Mineral Nutrient Availability

Biological Properties

Microorganisms

bacteria

fungi (e.g. mycorrhizas)

protozoa

nematodes

Macroorganisms

arthropods

earthworms

nematodes

Decomposition / Nutrient Recycling

Aeration

Aggregation (e.g. “microbial glue”)

SOIL: From the Ground, Up!

Soil Properties:

you fertilizer with a nitrogen fertilizer close to the herbicide application
You Fertilizer with a Nitrogen Fertilizer Close to the Herbicide Application.

You may have increased microbial action or salinity that breaks down the herbicide

organic matters

Add organic matter

Increased biological activity (& diversity)

Decomposition

Reduced soil-borne diseases

Aggregation increased

Pore structure improved

Nutrients released

Humus and other growth promoting substances

Improved tilth & water storage

Harmful substance detoxified

Healthy Plants

ORGANIC … MATTERS!
slide12

Rate at Which Water Moves in the Soil

Soil Types Infiltration rates (inches/hour)

Sand >0.8

Sandy &silty soils 0.4 to 0.8

Loams 0.2 to 0.4

Clay soils 0.04 to 0.2

you failed to incorporate the herbicide with cultivation or irrigation
You Failed to Incorporate the Herbicide with Cultivation or Irrigation

Many preemergence herbicides require up to ¾ inches of water to be activated

nursery trees how do we buy them

Nursery TreesHow Do We Buy Them?

Balled and Burlapped (B&B)

Containerized

Bare Root-

Liners, Transplants

slide23

Field Grown ( B&B)

  • Grown in native soils
  • Roots are cut with shovels
  • The ball is covered with burlap
  • Up to 80+ percent of the root system can be removed
slide26

Container Plants

  • Grown in artifical media
  • Rapid root growth
  • Depth of planting
  • Soils different than the planting site
  • Dries out fast
  • Need to fertilizer often
slide29

Hydrological

Discontinuity

bare root plants
Bare Root Plants
  • Grown in the field or in soil less media
  • The plants have the soil removed from the roots
  • This is usually done during dormant periods unless there is a large maintenance budget available
how are plants propagated
How are Plants Propagated ?
  • Seeds
    • source
  • Cuttings
        • –Stem or Root
  • Grafts
  • Tissue Culture
  • Which Type will give you diversity?
how are plants propagated1
How are Plants Propagated ?
  • Seeds
    • source
  • Cuttings
        • –Stem or Root
  • Grafts
  • Tissue Culture
seed grown
Seed Grown
  • Genetic variation
  • Takes the most time
  • Least expensive
how are plants propagated2
How are Plants Propagated ?
  • Seeds
    • source
  • Cuttings
        • –Stem or Root
  • Grafts
  • Tissue Culture
cutting grown trees
Cutting Grown Trees
  • Stems are rooted
  • Roots are forced to grow stems
  • Offspring look like parents
how are plants propagated3
How are Plants Propagated ?
  • Seeds
    • source
  • Cuttings
        • –Stem or Root
  • Grafts
  • Tissue Culture
grafting
Grafting
  • Bind a Scion to a rootstock
  • Hardiness, size, pest resistance
how are plants propagated4
How are Plants Propagated ?
  • Seeds
    • source
  • Cuttings
        • –Stem or Root
  • Grafts
  • Tissue Culture
tissue culture
Tissue Culture
  • Same genetics as parents
  • Rapid reproduction
  • Expensive
how are plants propagated5
How are Plants Propagated ?
  • Seeds
    • source
  • Cuttings
        • –Stem or Root
  • Grafts
  • Tissue Culture
  • Which Type will give you diversity?
slide48

Planting

Tree planted 4 years ago: burlap was not removed from ball, and roots failed to penetrate burlap

planting depth

Planting Depth

The flare of the plant should be at the surface .

Deep planting can lead to stem girdling roots and stem diseases

This is a issue in containers and field production

what causes girdling roots

What Causes Girdling Roots

One and Only one reason Planting Depth.

Solutions : ( nursery and landscape)

1. Understanding root systems

2. Proper planting depth

3. Don’t mulch against the trunk of the tree.

4. No backfill on existing trees.

what is mulch
What is Mulch?

An organic or inorganic material applied to the soil surface, usually during the growing season, or over the plant for the dormant season.

mulch problems
Mulch Problems

“Volcano” Mulch Method….

Over-Mulching

  • Stops free air exchange, suffocating roots.
  • Blocks penetration of water / fertilizer
  • Causes stem rot
  • New roots may grow into mulch elevating the root system.
  • Creates a “rodent haven.”

…more than 2 feet high!

adventitious roots are a sign of problems

Adventitious Roots are a Sign of Problems

When planted to deep a gap will form around the trunk.

Adventitious roots grow rapidly in that opening and don’t grow out into that soil .

how do trees grow in a woods

How Do Trees Grow in a Woods?

Understanding Tree Morphology

the seed falls to the ground

The Seed Falls To the Ground

The Seed is seldom if ever buried in the forest soil .

the seed falls to the ground1

The Seed Falls To the Ground

The Seed is seldom if ever buried in the forest soil .

The Root radical grows into the ground

the seed falls to the ground2

The Seed Falls To the Ground

The Seed is seldom if ever buried in the forest soil .

The Root radical grows into the ground

The Stem pushes up right to the sunlight

the seed falls to the ground3

The Seed Falls To the Ground

The Seed is seldom if ever buried in the forest soil .

The Root radical grows into the ground

The Stem pushes up right to the sunlight

Interface develops at the soil line ( as God intended it ,who do you think you are )

tree morphology

Tree Morphology

Understanding that that Trunk and Root Tissue is Different

Root tissue is much denser than stem tissue. Roots have to grow and push soil aside as they grow .

tree morphology1

Tree Morphology

Understanding that that Trunk and Root Tissue is Different

Root tissue is much denser than stem tissue.

Roots have to grow and push soil aside as they grow .

Stem tissue grows through air with little resistance . They must be able to flex in the wind.

slide82

Know Your Supplier

1 ¾” hackberry, 18” balls: all with 8 – 13” of soil over first main order roots

new plant maintenance list
New Plant Maintenance List
  • At Planting
  • Prune unwanted and dead branches
  • Create a water dish or burm at the edge of the rootball
  • Mulch as large an area as possible. No deeper than 3” deep and never against the trunk of the plant.
  • Throughly water even if it rains. 20 gallons of water per tree within 8 hours of planting.
new plant maintenance list1
New Plant Maintenance List
  • Summer
  • Water plants each week ,Unless:

more than one inch of rain occurs.

new plant maintenance list2
New Plant Maintenance List
  • Fall
  • Control weeds in the mulch bed
  • Apply up to one pound of actual Nitrogen per 1000 square feet . After leaf drop.
year 2
Year 2
  • Spring
  • Remove all stakes ,tags and wires
  • Control weeds
  • Refresh mulch (only 3 inche total depth)
  • Prune unwanted growth
year 21
Year 2
  • Fall
  • Control weeds
  • Fertilize with up to 2 pounds of actual N per 1000 Sq. Ft.
year 3 5 6 8and 9
Year 3,5,6,8and 9
  • Spring
  • Control weeds
  • Refresh mulch
  • Prune every 2 to 3 years
year 3 5 6 8and 91
Year 3,5,6,8and 9
  • Fall
  • Control weeds
  • Fall fertilize with up to 2 # of actual N per 1000 Sq. Ft.
year 4 7 and 10
Year 4, 7 and 10
  • Spring
  • In trees prune leaders ,raise branches, so the crown is on the upper 2/3 of the tree, remove dead and broken branches and suckers. Remove poor crotch angles while the branch is small.