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Chapter 8 . Sequence Control. Levels of sequence control Sequencing with expressions Statement-level sequence control Prime programs. Sequence control. Control of the order of execution of the operations both primitive and user defined.

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chapter 8 sequence control
Chapter 8 . Sequence Control
  • Levels of sequence control
  • Sequencing with expressions
  • Statement-level sequence control
  • Prime programs
sequence control
Sequence control

Control of the order of execution of the operations both primitive and user defined.

Implicit:determined by the order of the statements in the source program or by the built-in execution model

Explicit:the programmer uses statements to change the order of execution (e.g. uses If statement)

levels of sequence control
Levels of sequence control

Expressions: How data are manipulated using precedence rules and parentheses.

Statements: conditional and iteration statements change the sequential execution.

Declarative programming: an execution model that does not depend on the order of the statements in the source program.

Subprograms: transfer control from one program to another.

sequencing with expressions
Sequencing with expressions

What is the sequence of performing the operations?

How is the sequence defined, and how is it represented?

Functional composition : Basic sequence-control mechanism:

Given an operation with its operands, the operands may be:

·        Constants

·        Data objects

·        Other operations


Example: 3 * (var1 + 5)

operation - multiplication, operator: *, arity - 2

operand 1: constant (3)

operand 2: operation addition

operand1: data object (var1)

operand 2: constant (5)

more examples and questions
More examples and questions

Example 2: 3* var1 +5

Question: is the example equivalent to the above one?

Example 3:3 + var1 +5

Question: is this equivalent to (3 + var1) + 5,

or to 3 + (var1 + 5) ?

precedence and associativity
Precedence and associativity

Precedence concerns the order of applying operations

Associativity deals with the order of operations of same precedence.

Precedence and associativity are defined when the language is defined - within the semantic rules for expressions.

arithmetic operations expressions
Arithmetic operations / expressions

Linear representation of the expression tree:

       Prefix notation

·        Postfix notation

·        Infix notation

Prefix and postfix notations are parentheses-free.

execution time representation of expressions
Execution-time representation of expressions

Machine code sequence

Tree structures - software simulation

Prefix or postfix form - requires stack, executed by an interpreter.

evaluation of tree representation
Evaluation of tree representation

Eager evaluation - evaluate all operands before applying operators.

Lazy evaluation


Side effects - some operations may change operands of other operations.

Error conditions - may depend on the evaluation strategy (eager or lazy evaluation)

Boolean expressions - results may differ depending on the evaluation strategy.

statement level sequence control
Statement-level sequence control

Forms of statement-level control

Composition– Statements are executed in the order they appear in the source code.

Alternation – Two sequences form alternatives so one sequence or the other sequence is executed but not both. (conditionals)

Iteration– A sequence of statements that are executed repeatedly

explicit sequence control
Explicit Sequence Control

goto X

if Y goto X

– transfer control to the statement

labeled X if Y is true.


structured programming design
Structured programming design

(1)   Hierarchical design of program structures

(2)   Representation of hierarchical design directly in the program text using "structured" control statements.

(3)   The textual sequence corresponds to the execution sequence

(4)   Use of single-purpose groups of statements

structured control statements
Structured control statements
  • Compound statements
  • Conditionals
  • Iterations
compound statements
Compound statements

Typical syntax:






  Execute each statement in sequence.

Sometimes (e.g., C) { ... } used instead of begin ... end

conditional statements
Conditional statements

if expression then statement1 else statement2

if expression then statement1

 a choice among many alternatives

nested ifstatements


Implementation:jump and branch machine instructions, jump table implementation for case statements (see fig. 8.7)

iteration statements
Iteration statements

Simple repetition (for loop)

Specifies a count of the number

of times to execute a loop:

perform statement K times;

  for loop -


for I=1 to 10 do statement;

for(I=0;I<10; I++) statement;

repetition while condition holds
Repetition while condition holds

while expression do statement;

Evaluate expression and if true execute statement, then repeat process.

repeat statement until expression;

Execute statement and then evaluate expression.

Repeat if expression is not true.

C++ for loop functionally is equivalent to repetition while condition holds

problems with structured sequence control
Problems with structured sequence control

Multiple exit loops

Exceptional conditions

Do-while-do structure

Solutions vary with languages, e.g. in C++ - break statement, assert for exceptions.

prime programs
Prime programs

Three types of nodes to be used in a flowchart

some definitions
Some definitions

Any flowchart is a graph of directed arcs and these 3 types of nodes

A proper program is a flowchart with:

•1 entry arc

•1 exit arc

•There is a path from entry arc to any node to exit arc

prime programs composite programs
Prime programs, composite programs

A prime program is a proper program which has no embedded proper subprogram of greater than 1 node. (i.e., cannot cut 2 arcs to extract a prime subprogram within it).

A composite program is a proper program that is not prime.

structure theorem
Structure theorem

Any flowchart can be represented using only if statements, while statements and sequence control statements