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  1. 6th DresdenInternational Symposium: HAZARDS – DETECTION AND MANAGEMENT Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats J Sabol, L. Navrátil, B. Šesták Prague, CzechRepublic

  2. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats The terrorism achieves its goal not through its acts but through the response to its acts. Classical characterization of the terrorism:

  3. Today, after the Cold War, terrorists rather than nuclear-armed nations or military blocks are more likely to perpetrate their dreadful and lethal acts using nuclear or radiological weapons. This is a new global threat to international peace and security which is based on some specific phenomena and thus it has also to be challenged by specific measures where prevention by regulatory control is one of the most important tools of defence. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Threat and its prevention:

  4. Millions of radioactive sources are used every day for medical, industrial, research, and commercial purposes, all of which need to be adequately secured. Fortunately, however, only a small percentage of the sources are considered suitable for making potent radiological weapons. The following relatively common seven reactor-produced radioisotopes could pose particularly high security risks: americium-241, californium-252, cesium-137, cobalt-60, iridium-192, plutonium-238, and strontium-90. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Threat and its prevention:

  5. In the case of nuclear weapons, the terrorist groups could seize and detonate an intact nuclear bomb originating from a military arsenal or they could acquire a sufficient amount of highly enriched uranium or plutonium to construct and explode such a crude or improvised nuclear device. • Nuclear terrorism may also involve the sabotage of or attack on nuclear facilities such as nuclear power plants, research reactors, spent nuclear fuel storage compounds or a transport consignment containing nuclear material. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Nuclear terrorism:

  6. Due to strict regulatory measures regarding the safety and security of nuclear weapons, material or installations, many of them adopted even before the 9/11 attack in 2001 or Chernobyl accident in 1986. Nuclear facilities were always relatively well protected and this protection has recently been further enhanced by means of the latest technology applied to minimize the threat of nuclear terrorism. This is why it is expected that at present, potential terrorists would concentrate their efforts towards acquiring high-activity radioactive sources and use them in a so-called “dirty bomb” rather than trying to attack nuclear facilities or attempting to seize nuclear material or nuclear weapons kept by the military. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Nuclear vs radiological terrorism:

  7. Nuclear and radiological terrorism also differ markedly in their consequences. Although dirty bombs could cause dozens of fatalities from the conventional blast, they would typically kill few, if any, people in the near term from exposure to ionising radiation. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Nuclear vs radiological terrorism:

  8. The most widely-known dissemination method is through explosives, commonly called a “dirty bomb”. Dirty bomb - radiological weapon or radiological dispersion device (RDD) - is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive material with the intent to kill, and cause disruption upon a city or nation. The RDD is only one type of radiological weapon . Other kind of radiological weapons are different sorts of radiation emission devices (RED). Terrorists might try placing a RED in a crowded location in heavily populated areas such as a busy train station. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Nuclear vs radiological terrorism:

  9. Nuclear and radiological terrorism also differ markedly in their consequences. Although dirty bombs could cause dozens of fatalities from the conventional blast, they would typically kill few, if any, people in the near term from exposure to ionising radiation. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Nuclear vs radiological terrorism:

  10. Over a period of several years, however, many people might develop cancer as a result of this exposure. Experts have labelled dirty bombs, or radiation dispersal devices, as weapons of mass disruption because the main effects would probably be psychological and social disruption caused by fear of radiation and by radioactive contamination that could shut down large areas of a city. Similarly, a successful terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant or radioactive-waste storage site would release radiation, spark fear, and cause widespread disruption. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Nuclear vs radiological terrorism:

  11. to identify financial sponsors and dedicated individuals and to organize a terrorist group (it would require some communications , traveling and meetings), • to take decision to commit the violent act and to select a vulnerable or other sensitive site for the attack, • to decide which weapon to use and collect sufficient information how to acquire necessary components to complete such a device (including illicit trafficking, theft, purchase etc), • to prepare/construct the weapon and to transport it to the site of the attack, • to carry out the attack and leave the site Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Chain of actions terrorists have to go through:

  12. to break any link in the chain of terrorist actions and apply a defence-in-depth (multi-layer) approach, • the strategy should include: • intelligence to identify nuclear terrorist organisations, • law enforcement and military action to apprehend or destroy the terrorists, • physical guarding of nuclear weapons, fissile material, radioactive material, and nuclear/radiation facilities housing highly radioactive substances, • radiation detection systems to help intercept nuclear explosive material and potent radioactive sources at border crossings Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Prevention strategy:

  13. Historically, the control of radioactive sources, including those with high activities, has not usually been at a level comparable to the control of nuclear materials or nuclear installations. In most countries these radioactive sources have not been under the responsibility of central nuclear/radiation regulatory authorities but under different government or local agencies where traditionally the most important role has been played by ministries of health, industry or environment. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Control of nuclear vs radioactive material:

  14. During the last decade or so, coordinated and internationally harmonized procedures have been developed and appropriate steps began to be implemented in order to increase the control of high-risk radioactive sources. This control relies on the regulatory infrastructures empowered to adopt all necessary measures in ensuring adequate safety and security of these sources at both national and international levels. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats National vs international dimension:

  15. The previous regulatory mechanisms for controlling most powerful radioactive sources were aimed primarily on safety aspects, while security issues were not sufficiently addressed. By present standards, these mechanisms are considered to be inadequate because they do not comply with the current security requirements, where a performance-based philosophy is replacing the older compliance-based concept. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Safety vs security aspects:

  16. The previous regulatory mechanisms for controlling most powerful radioactive sources were aimed primarily on safety aspects, while security issues were not sufficiently addressed. By present standards, these mechanisms are considered to be inadequate because they do not comply with the current security requirements, where a performance-based philosophy is replacing the older compliance-based concept. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Safety vs security aspects:

  17. Establishment of efficient national radiation protection infrastructures, including the creation of a national independent regulatory authority empowered to introduce a system of notification, authorization, inspection and enforcement, and to issuing appropriate regulations addressing the safety and security of radioactive sources applying the concept of defence-in-depth, including physical and organizational barriers; the adoption of relevant legislation; and the implementation of other relevant security measures based on international standards and recommendations. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Main regulatory mechanisms :

  18. Introduction and maintenance of the inventory of radioactive sources based on the classification of the sources in accordance with their dangerous effects, and on the regular updating of these sources taking into account their monitoring and ensuring the control of the sources following the principle “from the cradle to the grave” which requires an adequate radioactive waste management system to properly store or dispose of sources at end-of-life. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Main regulatory mechanisms :

  19. Establishment of national capabilities regarding technical support services, including mechanisms for detecting, localizing, identifying, recovering and securing orphan, lost, stolen and other unaccountable sources as well as intercepted illicit sources. • Establishment of a system for the adequate training of personnel, including regular exercises, encouraging the cultivation of the safety/security culture approach, and promoting awareness of the population toward understanding the threat of radiological terrorism and response in line with the international recommendations. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Main regulatory mechanisms:

  20. UNO Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Role of international organizations:

  21. ICRP Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Role of international organizations:

  22. ICRP Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Existing ICRP recommendations Role of international organizations:

  23. ICRP Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats The recommendations in the report are conceptually applicable to a wide range of conceivable attacks, ranging from malevolent uses of radioactive materials, such as employing the so-called ‘radiological dispersion devices’, or RDD, sabotaging nuclear facilities to cause a nuclear accident or, in extreme cases, detonating improvised nuclear devices, or IND. However, since the two latter scenarios are perceived to present a wider range of potential situations, to be less accessible, and perhaps to be more unlikely than those involving commonly used radioactive materials, the Commission has tailored its recommendations to radiological attacks with RDDs in particular. Role of international organizations:

  24. ICRP Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Planning for radiological protection in the aftermath of a radiological attack requires the establishment of appropriate programmes, at both the local and national level. These programmes need to ensure that first responders and rescuers are adequately trained and have the proper equipment to identify the presence of radiation and radioactive contamination, and that radiation protection specialists are available to advise local and other relevant authorities. Role of international organizations:

  25. Role of international organizations: • IAEA Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats The leading organization in this field is the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which has been succeeding in mobilizing relevant international expert bodies, organizations and regional groupings towards the implementation of efficient tools for controlling radioactive sources and materials.

  26. IAEA • Adoption and implementation of the IAEA documents: • Basic Safety Standards on the Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), • Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources , • Guidelines on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Role of international organizations:

  27. IAEA Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats The IAEA is the world's nuclear watchdog organization. One Focus of the IAEA is maintaining and improving the radiation safety standards and guidelines that are used throughout the world, including security for both nuclear power plants and radioactive sources. The IAEA has been working for a number of years to increase security standards and measures. Role of international organizations: IAEA headquarters in Vienna

  28. IAEA Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Role of international organizations:

  29. IAEA – Code of Conduct The G-8 at its meeting in Evian in 2003 expressed its full political support for the IAEA actions and for the Code of Conductand encouraged all States working to increase the safety and security of radioactive sources. At Sea Island in 2004, the G-8 gave its support to the “Guidance on the Import and Export of High-Risk Radioactive Sources,” which was developed under the auspices of the IAEA and was subsequently endorsed by the General Conference in September 2004. UN Security Council Resolution 1540, in its preamble, recognized that most States have taken effective preventive measures in accordance with the recommendations given in the Code of Conduct. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Role of international organizations:

  30. IAEA – Code of Conduct Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats The Group of Eight (G-8) nations—Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia—is a smaller, but powerful, forum in which countries have decided to work together to address the threat of radiological terrorism. The G-8 includes most of the major producers of commercial radioactive sources. At its June 2003 summit, the G-8 announced that its members would focus on high-priority provisions of the IAEA Code of Conduct. Role of international organizations:

  31. IAEA Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Role of international organizations:

  32. IAEA Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Role of international organizations:

  33. IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database Programme (ITDP) Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Material is circulating in unauthorized/ criminal circumstances (one has also to take into account that terrorists might be smart) Role of international organizations:

  34. IAEA: Safeguards (non-proliferation) + Safety + Security Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Role of international organizations:

  35. IAEA: Detection techniques Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats

  36. EU (EURADOS) • Adoption and implementation of the IAEA documents: • Basic Safety Standards on the Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), • Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources , • Guidelines on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Role of international organizations:

  37. Nuclear/radiation security is an investment. The IAEA to assume a leadership role at the interna-tional level, in close coordination with States and other international organizations. A holistic, synergistic and sustainable approach with emphasis on synergies will be both efficient and effective Operators must manage their facilities/locations with focus on security. There is no room for complacency in this serious matter. Prevention by Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources as the Best Defence against International Radiological Threats Conclusion: