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Textual Structures. Why is this important???. Common Text Structures. Chronological Cause and Effect Problem and Solution Compare and Contrast Description Once you can understand the structure of the text, you can have a better understanding of the author’s main idea. Chronological.

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textual structures

Textual Structures

Why is this important???

common text structures
Common Text Structures
  • Chronological
  • Cause and Effect
  • Problem and Solution
  • Compare and Contrast
  • Description
  • Once you can understand the structure of the text, you can have a better understanding of the author’s main idea.
chronological
Chronological
  • To show how to do something or make something, or to relate a series of events that happen over time
    • Also known as sequential or temporal
  • Look for transition words
    • First, next, later, after, before, following, then, in addition to, followed by, and finally are used
cause and effect
Cause and Effect
  • To show why something exists or is in place, to tell what happens as the result of an action or actions, to show how one or more causes led to one or more effects
  • Look for transition words
    • Cause, effect, as a result, consequently, so, so that, because of, since, and in order to are used
problem and solution
Problem and Solution
  • To present a problem and show how it can be (or has been) solved
  • Look for transition words
    • Problem, solution, solve, effect, hopeful, concern, challenge, resolve
  • Don’t confuse this with Cause/Effect – this will ALWAYS have a solution
compare and contrast
Compare and Contrast
  • To present how two topics are the same and/or different
  • Look for transition words
    • Like, similar, unlike, on the other hand, also, same as, different from, resembles, yet, as well as, alike, however, too
description
Description
  • To tell what something is, to present an item’s attributes or properties, to show what an item or place is like
  • Look for
    • Descriptive adjectives
examples
Examples
  • Chronological:
    • Goose bumps make me shiver. First, I get cold. Then I shake all over. Later, the bumps pop out.
  • Description:
    • Goose bumps make me shiver. I get little bumps on my skin. They look like sesame seeds.
  • Compare and Contrast:
    • Some people get goose bumps from fear. Others get goose bumps when they are touched emotionally.
  • Cause and Effect:
    • Goose bumps make me shiver. When the temperature drops below 45 degrees, my skin crinkles into goose bumps.
  • Problem and Solution:
    • Goose bumps make me shiver. But they disappear as soon as I cover up with a jacket or sweater.
why do i need to know
Why do I need to know
  • Understanding the structure will help you decide the main idea.
    • Ex. If the text structure is cause/effect and the article is about icebergs, the main idea would have something to do with the cause of icebergs
    • If the text structure is chronological and the article is about icebergs, the main idea would have something to do with informing you on the process of an iceberg
now you try it
Now, you try it!!

Text Structures Examples Practice