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Unit 11 Marine Vertebrates

Unit 11 Marine Vertebrates

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Unit 11 Marine Vertebrates

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  1. Unit 11 Marine Vertebrates Pages 5-66 to 5-88

  2. 11.01: Characteristics of Phylum Chordata and sub-Phylum Vertebrata: • pharyngeal (gill) slits • vertebrae • dorsal hollow nerve cord • cephalization • increased sensory abilities • post-anal tail • dominate top of food webs • notochord

  3. 11.02: Class Agnathans (jawless fish) examples: • lamprey and hagfish -live as scavengers or parasites

  4. 11.03 : Rise of jawed fish • Jawless fish (Agnathans) were thought to have given rise to jawed fish during the Cambrian period. • Jawed fish (Gnathostomata) divided into 3 groups: • Placodermi- scaly-skinned fish -extinct • Chondrichthyes- cartilaginous fish • Osteichthyes- bony fish

  5. 11.04: Characteristics of Class Chondrichthyes: • cartilage skeleton • jaws • no swim bladder • internal fertilization • lateral lines • Electroreception (ampullae of Lorenzini) • 5 to 7 pairs of gills • no operculum • Sub-class Elasmobranchii- sharks and rays

  6. 11.05:Physical & Physiological characteristics of sharks & rays that help them save energy: • lightweight skeleton • buoyant oil-filled liver • streamlined body • denticles- point backwards to reduce friction • lift producing fins (like wings) • stores urea to maintain equal density w/water • asymmetrical tail provides lift

  7. 11.06 & 11.07 (worksheets)Characteristics of Class Osteichthyes

  8. 11.08Bony fish control buoyancy by using: • swim bladder=adding or releasing gas

  9. 11.09: What is the function of the lateral line?(rays, sharks, and bony fish) • sensory pores along the length of the body that detects pressure and vibrations • What is the importance of the lateral line? • helps with schooling, coordinates movement, and detects approaching predators

  10. 11.10: What is electroreception? • pits near the snout (ampullae of Lorenzini) that senses minute electricity creates by muscles/nerves • What is the function of electroreception? detects prey

  11. 11.11A (worksheet): Explain how a fish’s body design relates to its movement & feeding style. • Body shape: • Fusiform • laterally compressed • depressed

  12. 11.11 BTail shape rounded, forked, crescent

  13. 11.11 CMouth shape: upward, sub-terminal, terminal, specialized

  14. 11.123 sexual reproductive methods of fish • Oviparous (most fish)Lay eggs hatch outside body • ViviparousBirth to live young • OvoviviparousEggs hatch inside/live birth • Advantages? • Disadvantages?