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Religions of the World. The 5 Major World Religions. Christianity Islam Hinduism Buddhism Judaism These 5 religions have over 4.5 BILLION followers, more than 2/3 of the world’s population. Buddhism. Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama, also known as “The Buddha.”

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the 5 major world religions
The 5 Major World Religions
  • Christianity
  • Islam
  • Hinduism
  • Buddhism
  • Judaism

These 5 religions have over 4.5 BILLION followers, more than 2/3 of the world’s population.

buddhism
Buddhism
  • Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama, also known as “The Buddha.”
  • He was born in 566 BC and lived until he was 80.
  • He was the son of an Indian warrior-king, a prince.
the buddha
The Buddha
  • Gautama led an extravagant life through early adulthood, reveling in the privileges of his social caste.
  • But when he bored of the indulgences of royal life, Gautama wandered into the world in search of understanding.
  • After encountering an old man, an ill man, a corpse and an ascetic, Gautama was convinced that suffering lay at the end of all existence.
  • He renounced his princely title and became a monk, depriving himself of worldly possessions in the hope of comprehending the truth of the world around him.
the enlightened one
“The Enlightened One”
  • The end of his search came under a tree, where he finally understood how to be free from suffering and to achieve salvation.
  • Following this insight, Gautama was known as the Buddha, meaning the "Enlightened One."
  • The Buddha spent the rest of his life in India, teaching others what he had come to understand.
the four noble truths
The Four Noble Truths
  • The truth of suffering.
  • The truth of the cause of suffering.
  • The truth of the end of suffering.
  • The truth of the path that leads to the end of suffering.
the meaning of the 4 noble truths
The meaning of the 4 Noble Truths
  • The First Truth identifies the presence of suffering.
  • The Second Truth, on the other hand, seeks to determine the cause of suffering.
  • The Third Noble Truth, the truth of the end of suffering, suggesting

either the end of suffering in this life, on earth, or in the spiritual life, through achieving Nirvana.

  • The Fourth Noble truth charts the method for attaining the end of suffering, known to Buddhists as the Noble Eightfold Path.
nirvana
Nirvana
  • Nirvana is the supreme state free from suffering and individual existence.
  • It is a state Buddhists refer to as "Enlightenment".
  • It is the ultimate goal of all Buddhists.
  • The attainment of nirvana breaks the otherwise endless rebirth cycle of reincarnation. Buddhists also consider nirvana as freedom from all worldly concerns such as greed, hate, and ignorance
the eightfold path to nirvana
The Eightfold Path to Nirvana

1. Right View

2. Right Intention

3. Right Speech

4. Right Action

5. Right Livelihood

6. Right Effort

7. Right Mindfulness

8. Right Concentration

karma
Karma
  • According to karma, performing positive actions results in a good condition in one's experience, whereas a negative action results in a bad effect.
  • The effects may be seen immediately or delayed until later in the present life or in the next.
  • Thus, your acts may mean rebirth into a higher station, such as a superior human or a godlike being, while evil acts result in rebirth as a human living in less desirable circumstances, or as a lower animal.
buddhist facts
Buddhist Facts
  • There are approximately 378.8 million Buddhists in the world.
  • Most Buddhists are located in Southeast or South Asia.
  • Major Leader: Siddhartha Gautama
hinduism
Hinduism
  • Hinduism is a polytheistic religion.
  • Polytheistic means a religion with many gods.
  • The main god in Hinduism is Brahman. He is everything and in everything.
origins of hinduism
Origins of Hinduism
  • There is no known leader of Hinduism.
  • Hinduism is believed to have begun around 10,000 BC.
  • It is one of the oldest “Enlightenment” religions in the world.
hindu beliefs
Hindu Beliefs
  • Dharma is the path of righteousness and living one's life according to the codes of conduct as described by the Vedas.
  • The Vedas are the scriptures in the Hindu religion. They are equivalent to the Bible or the Koran.
vedanta
Vedanta
  • Vedanta is a philosophy taught by the Vedas, the most ancient scriptures of India.
  • Its basic teaching is that our real nature is divine. God, or Brahman as it is called, exists in every living being.
  • Religion is therefore a search for self-knowledge, a search for the divine within ourselves. We should not think of ourselves as needing to be "saved." We are never lost. At worst, we are living in ignorance of our true nature.
  • Vedanta acknowledges that there are many different approaches to God, and all are valid. Any kind of spiritual practice will lead to the same state of self-realization. Thus Vedanta teaches respect for all religions.
reincarnation
Reincarnation
  • At death the soul passes into another body.
  • It is carried within the subtle body.
  • The next body is determined by the state of mind at death, and by the soul's desires and deserts.
  • The nature of the soul is the same, regardless of which body it resides in.
  • Samsara – passing through the six categories of life forms – is considered painful for the eternal soul.

Classes of Life

(1) aquatics

(2) Plants

(3) reptiles and insects

(4) Birds

(5) Animals

(6) humans, including the residents of heaven

the sacred cow
The Sacred Cow
  • The cow is a protected animal and Hindus do not eat beef.
  • Most rural Indian families have at least one dairy cow, a gentle spirit who is often treated as a member of the family.
  • The five products of the cow — milk, curds, ghee butter, urine and dung — are all used in puja (worship) as well as in rites of extreme penance.
  • The milk of the family cow nourishes children as they grow up, and cow dung (gobar) is a major source of energy for households throughout India.
  • Cow dung is sometimes among the materials used for a tilak - a ritual mark on the forehead.
  • Most Indians do not share the western revulsion at cow excrement, but instead consider it an earthy and useful natural product.
bindi
Bindi
  • A bindi is a dot worn on women's foreheads. It is a symbolic mark worn by many Hindu men and women.
  • Traditionally, the bindi is worn on the forehead of married Hindu women.
  • It symbolizes female energy and is believed to protect women and their husbands.
  • The bindi is most commonly a red dot.
  • The bindi is a way of accentuating the third eye, the area between the eyebrows where attention is focused during meditation.
  • Men and women often apply it as a way of invoking religious feelings, concentration and focus.
hindu facts
Hindu Facts
  • Leader: Unknown
  • There are approximately 860 million Hindu followers in the world.
  • 80% of Hindu followers are located in South Asia.
  • Polytheistic Religion
judaism
Judaism
  • A monotheistic religion.
  • Mono= 1
  • Theism= God
  • They worship only one God.

Hanukkah Candles

what is judaism
What is Judaism?

A Jewish Dreidel

  • Judaism is the oldest organized religion in the world.
  • Judaism was began by Abraham- the father of the Israel nation. He was the first Jewish Person.
  • They worship one God named Yahweh.
jewish scriptures
Jewish Scriptures
  • The Jewish scriptures are called a Torah.
  • They are the first 5 books of the bible.
  • The Torah gives the Jews their laws and commandments from Yehweh.
  • They also have oral scripture that was passed down from generation to generation.
  • It was written down around 100 AD.
  • It is called the Talmud.
moses
Moses
  • One of the most important prophets in Judaism was Moses.
  • He brought the Jewish people the 10 commandments from Mt. Sinai.
  • The 10 commandments are still followed today.

Picture of Moses and 10 Commandments

branches of judaism
Branches of Judaism

Messianic

  • They believe in the same history of all Jewish people.
  • They believe in Yeshua, or Jesus, just as Christians.
  • They observe all Jewish traditions and customs.

Orthodox

  • They believe in all older Jewish traditions and customs.
  • They are awaiting the coming Messiah who will redeem the world.
bar or bat mitzvah
Bar or Bat Mitzvah

Bar Mitzvah

  • A celebration of when a child reaches the age of maturity.
  • Celebration for boys.
  • Celebrated on the 13th Birthday.

Bat Mitzvah

  • Celebration of maturity.
  • Celebration for girls.
  • Celebrated on the 12th Birthday.

After this celebration, a Jewish child is held responsible for his or her actions.

jewish customs
Jewish Customs
  • The breaking of a glass at a Jewish Wedding.
  • Wedding ceremony takes place under a Chuppah.
  • Wearing a kippah in the synagogue.
  • Wearing a tallit, or prayer shawl when praying.
  • Jewish families will sit in “Shiva” or mourning for 7 days when a family member dies.
rosh hashanah and yom kippur
Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur
  • Rosh Hashanah The Jewish Holiday to celebrate when G-d created Adam, his final creation.
  • On Rosh Hashanah, everyone is judged by G-d based on his or her actions during the previous year.
  • The resulting judgment is inscribed by G-d and a person’s future is determined for the following year.
  • Known as a day of prayer, Yom Kippur does have numerous prayers associated with it. Most revolve around the central theme of repentance and return
  • The most famous restriction of Yom Kippur is fasting.
  • The Jewish people concentrate on prayer without regard to food.
hanukkah
Hanukkah
  • Hanukkah is a Jewish celebration commemorating the military victory of the Jewish Maccabees over the Greek-Syrians. Hanukkah also commemorates the re-dedication of the Second Temple in 164 BCE.
  • Hanukkah is celebrated for eight days.
  • A Menorah, or a candelabrum is lit one at a time for eight nights.
  • On the last day of Hanukkah all the candles are therefore lit.
  • While the candles are being lit chants are sung and blessings are recited.
  • Afterward, families can sit down to a prepared meal, play games or exchange gifts.
jewish facts
Jewish Facts
  • There are 13 million Jews in the world.
  • 40% Live in America while 35% live in Israel.
  • Israel became a Jewish nation in 1948 after World War II.

The Wailing Wall in Jerusalem

christianity
Christianity
  • Christianity is a monotheistic religion.
  • The leader of Christianity: Jesus Christ
  • Christianity is a new religion, but has roots in Judaism.
what do christians believe
What do Christians Believe?
  • They believe in the same Old Testament books of the Bible the Jews do.
  • They believe Jesus Christ is the Messiah who was predicted in the Old Testament.
  • They believe there is a heaven and a hell.
the scriptures
The Scriptures
  • The Bible is the scriptures Christians believe in.
  • The Old Testament tells of the Jewish people before Jesus came to earth.
  • The Bible gives Christians rules and regulations on how to live your life.
  • The New Testament tells the story of Jesus Christ and his life.
famous christians of the bible
Famous Christians of the Bible
  • Abraham- Father of the Jewish nation Israel.
  • Moses- received the Ten Commandments from God.
  • King David- the Greatest King of Israel.
  • Elijah-One of the Great Prophets.
  • Jesus- the savior of the world.
  • Paul-writer of most of the new testament.
  • 12 Apostles- Jesus’s followers and right-hand men.
christianity s holy city jerusalem
Christianity’s Holy City:Jerusalem
  • Jerusalem is the city where Jesus taught many of His followers.
  • In this city, Jesus was crucified, buried, and resurrected.
  • Jerusalem is also the holy city for other religions.
3 main branches of christianity
3 Main Branches of Christianity
  • Catholic- It is the largest branch with over 1 billion followers.
  • Orthodox-Also known as Eastern Orthodox. It main branches are in the Eastern Hemispheres like Eastern Europe and Russia.
  • Protestant- It has the most denominations which began after the Protestant reformation in the 1500’s.
celebrations in christianity
Celebrations in Christianity
  • Christmas- The celebration of the birth of Jesus. Christians give presents because of the story of the wise men bringing gifts to the newborn Jesus.
  • Easter- The celebration of the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ. The celebration begins with Palm Sunday and leads to Good Friday and ends with Easter Sunday.
  • Christians worship on Sunday because they believe that is the day Jesus rose from the dead, unlike the Jews who celebrate on Saturday.
christianity facts
Christianity Facts
  • Christianity has the most followers of all the 5 religions in the world.
  • There are 2.1 Billion Christians in the world.
  • Christianity is influential all around the world.
islam
Islam
  • Islam is a monotheistic religion.
  • Followers of Islam are known as Muslims.
  • Muslims believe in one God whom they call Allah.
  • The followers are descendants of Abraham, father of the Jewish nation.
what is islam
What is Islam?
  • Islam means the submission or surrender of one's will to the will of the only true god worthy of worship.
  • The one true God is Allah, or God the Father of Christianity.
  • Allah spoke to the prophet Muhammad and gave him the words in the Koran.
islam basics
Islam Basics
  • Islam teaches that this life is a life of worship. Muslims are placed on this earth in order to worship Allah and obey His command.
  • During this earthly life followers are subjected to a series of trials. They have the option of enduring these trials and conforming to certain laws, and their reward will be great in the next life, or they may decline to endure these trials and choose to not conform to the law, then they will be made to regret it in the next life. 
  • Each person will be solely and completely responsible for their own final reward. They are also told that God has designed these laws to make this life a better, safer, and more tolerable one for us. If followers elect to conform to them then they will see the result in this life even before moving on to the next.
  • Followers are told that the earthly life is a life of faith and work, and the next life is one of reward and no work.
  • They have been placed on this earth to worship God, fast, pray, be industrious, good, kind, respectful, and a source of uprightness and morality.
  • They are told that God has no need of their worship. Worship can not increase the kingdom of God nor add to His power, however, it is in their best interests both in this life and the next that they do.
3 levels of islam
3 Levels of Islam

1) Islam:

  • Testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah
  • Establish the daily prayers.
  • Pay Zakat (Obligatory charity due the poor)
  • Observe the fast of Ramadan.
  • Perform pilgrimage to Mecca once in your life if you are able .

2) Faith (Iman):

  • To believe in Allah
  • To believe in His angels
  • To believe in His Books (Scriptures)
  • To believe in His Messengers
  • To believe in the Day of Judgment
  • To believe in the Divine Decree (Divine fate) whether good or evil

3) Excellence/Goodness

5 pillars of islam
5 Pillars of Islam
  • (1) To bear witness that there is no entity worthy of worship except Allah(God) alone, and that Muhammad was His messenger. This establishes obedience to God Almighty alone.
  • (2) To perform five prescribed prayers to God every day according to a specific prescribed method and at specific prescribed times. This continually reminds us to bear God in mind in all actions, either before or after any given prayer.
  • (3) To pay two and a half percent (2.5%) of ones wealth to charity every year if their savings exceed a certain minimum level which is considered above the poverty level.
  • (4) To fast the month of Ramadhanevery year from sun rise until sunset. This involves not eating, drinking, or having marital relations, from sun rise until sun set.
  • (5) To perform a pilgrimage to Mecca (in the Arabian Peninsula) once in a Muslim's lifetime if it is financially possible and their health permits.
muhammad
Muhammad
  • Muhammad was born in Mecca in the year 570 A.D.
  • He was a direct descendant of Ishmael, the eldest son of prophet Abraham.
  • At the age of 40, while engaged in a meditative retreat, Muhammad received his first revelation from God through the Archangel Gabriel.
  • This revelation, which continued for twenty three years, is known as the Qur'an
qur an koran
Qur'an (Koran)
  • The Qur’an is the scriptures followed by the Muslims.
  • The Qur'an comprehends the complete code for the Muslims to live a good, chaste, abundant and rewarding life in obedience to the commandments of Allah, in this life and to gain salvation in the next.
jihad
Jihad
  • In Islam Jihad is interpreted as sacrificing all of your powers including your wealth and life in the way of Allah: to devote your life for protection and promotion of Islam and even sacrificing the lives of your family, your relatives and your nation.
  • To compete with Islam’s enemies, to make their tricks fail and to stop their attacks, for this a Muslim is ordered to enter into a battlefield if necessary.
  • Jihad is supposed to be begun if any one of the following conditions occur.

1-Enemy attacks a Muslim state.

2-Enemy torches the Muslim population in his country only because they are Muslims.

3-Enemy creates obstacles for the promotion of Islam.

islam facts
Islam Facts
  • There are 1.2 Billion Muslims in the world today.
  • The majority of Muslims are located in the Middle East and North Africa.
  • The leader of Islam: Muhammad