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Hispanic Heritage Month Presentation to the Department of Natural Resources. By Gabriel Albornoz September 19, 2011. Overview. Personal Information Overview of Hispanics in the Nation and Maryland Review Case Study - history of migration of El Salvadorans since 1970 Immigrants in Parks

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hispanic heritage month presentation to the department of natural resources

Hispanic Heritage MonthPresentation to the Department of Natural Resources

By Gabriel Albornoz

September 19, 2011

overview
Overview
  • Personal Information
  • Overview of Hispanics in the Nation and Maryland
  • Review Case Study - history of migration of El Salvadorans since 1970
  • Immigrants in Parks
  • Ideas for engaging multicultural communities
hispanic community nationwide
Hispanic Community Nationwide

A diverse and rapidly growing population that has seen population growth beyond the traditional bicoastal and border states of Texas, California, New York, and Miami.

According to Census 2010 figures; Hispanic populations have doubled over the last decade in Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, South Dakota, and MARYLAND.

The nation’s Hispanic population, which was 35.3 million in 2000, grew 46.3% over the decade to 50.5 million in the United Sates, according to Census 2010 figures; making up 16.3% of the total US population. 

Overall, growth in the Hispanic population accounted for most of the nation's growth--56%--from 2000 to 2010. 

Population Counts for 2010 are tabulated from P.L. 94-171 Summary Files released by the Census Bureau beginning February 2011.

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hispanic community of maryland
Hispanic Community of Maryland

In 2000, Hispanics accounted for 4 percent of the total population (227,916) in Maryland. After Census 2010, Hispanic count grew to 9 percent of the total population (477, 066 or a 106 % growth).

9% of the overall population is close to the National average. New Mexico is 45% Hispanic, Texas and Florida at 36%.

All of Maryland’s population growth can be attributed to minority growth; and Hispanics account for the largest population increases.

Hispanic population growth continues to center primarily in and around the DC suburbs of Prince George’s County and Montgomery County, however; an increase was also marked in Anne Arundel County, Baltimore County, Frederick County, Howard County, and Baltimore City.

Population Counts for 2010 are tabulated from P.L. 94-171 Summary Files released by the Census Bureau beginning February 2011.

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hispanic community of maryland1
Hispanic Community of Maryland

With the exception of Alleghany (90 percent), Garrett (68 percent), Kent (66 percent), and Montgomery Counties (64 percent), every other Maryland jurisdiction experienced over 100 percent Hispanic population growth.

The greatest percentage share of total population, however, remains in Montgomery County, where Hispanics account for 17 percent of the total population.

Prince George’s experienced the largest change in share of total population; growing from 7 percent (57, 057) of total County population, to 15 percent (128,972) of total County population.

Other major changes in total share of population include; Frederick County (267% growth, now 7 per cent of County population), Anne Arundel County (155% growth, now 6 per cent of County population), and Howard County (123% growth, now 6 per cent of County population).

Population Counts for 2010 are tabulated from P.L. 94-171 Summary Files released by the Census Bureau beginning February 2011.

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hispanic community of maryland national origin descent
Hispanic Community of Maryland:National Origin/Descent
  • Hispanics of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban origin or descent remain the nation's three largest Hispanic country-of-origin groups, according to the 2010 U.S. Census. However, while the relative position of these groups has remained unchanged since 2000, the next four Hispanic sub-groups—Salvadorans, Dominicans, Guatemalans and Colombians—grew faster during the decade. Despite their No. 1 status, Mexicans are not the dominant group in many of the nation's metropolitan areas, including the Washington DC metropolitan region.

Population Counts for 2010 are tabulated from P.L. 94-171 Summary Files released by the Census Bureau beginning February 2011.

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hispanic community of maryland national origin descent con t
Hispanic Community of Maryland:National Origin/Descent (con’t)

Population Counts for 2010 are tabulated from P.L. 94-171 Summary Files released by the Census Bureau beginning February 2011.

  • In Maryland, Native-Born Hispanics account for 47 percent of total Hispanic population. Foreign-Born account for 53 percent.
  • Most sizable Hispanic origin community are Central Americans (38.9 percent), Mexicans account for the second largest Hispanic origin (19.1 percent), and South Americans don’t trail too far behind (14.7 percent).
  • Salvadorans make up the largest share of the Central American community, at 24.3 percent, making it the largest community of Hispanic origin in Maryland.
  • Of Hispanic Caribbean origin, Puerto Ricans make up the largest share at 10.9 percent (fourth largest in total share of Hispanic origin), followed by Dominicans at 2.9 percent, and Cubans at 2.3 percent.

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hispanic community of maryland demographic snapshot
Hispanic Community of Maryland:Demographic Snapshot
  • Median Age: 27
  • Median Age Native-Born: 11
  • Median Age Foreign-Born: 36
  • Homeownership: 56 percent
  • Health Insurance: 32 percent
    • Foreign-Born: 52 percent
    • Native-Born: 11 percent

Population Counts for 2010 are tabulated from P.L. 94-171 Summary Files released by the Census Bureau beginning February 2011.

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hispanic community of maryland demographic snapshot1
Hispanic Community of Maryland:Demographic Snapshot
  • Language Spoken at Home:

- Only English Spoken at Home (90,000/25%)

- Language Other than Only English Spoken at Home (268,000/75%)

  • Hispanics as percent of all K-12 students: 9 percent

Population Counts for 2010 are tabulated from P.L. 94-171 Summary Files released by the Census Bureau beginning February 2011.

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hispanic community of maryland demographic snapshot2
Hispanic Community of Maryland:Demographic Snapshot
  • Annual Personal Earnings of Hispanics $24,000

(Annual Personal Earnings of Non-Hispanic Whites $40,000)

(Annual Personal Earnings of Non-Hispanic Blacks $35,000)

Population Counts for 2010 are tabulated from P.L. 94-171 Summary Files released by the Census Bureau beginning February 2011.

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hispanic community of maryland demographic snapshot3
Hispanic Community of Maryland:Demographic Snapshot
  • Maryland’s Hispanic eligible voters are younger than all eligible voters in Maryland—32% of Hispanic eligible voters in Maryland are ages 18 to 29 versus 21% of all Maryland eligible voters.
  • Latino eligible voters in Maryland are much more likely to be naturalized citizens than are all Maryland eligible voters—41% versus 7%.
  • The growth in the number of children of immigrants in Maryland accounted for most of the increase in the state’s child population between 1990 and 2006.
  • Between 2000 and 2007, public school enrollment of Hispanic students (with immigrant or native parents) increased by 92 percent.

Population Counts for 2010 are tabulated from P.L. 94-171 Summary Files released by the Census Bureau beginning February 2011.

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statistics
Statistics
  • Approximately 11million undocumented in the United States
  • Down two thirds from 2007 to 2009
  • Overall reduction of 8% from peak in 2007
  • 2009 was the first year of decline in immigration into the United States in more than 25 years.
significant salvadoran immigration waves
Significant Salvadoran Immigration Waves

First Phase (1970s) Characteristics:

Second Phase (1980s) Factors:

Third Phase (1990-Present) Causes:

salvadoran migration 1970s
Salvadoran Migration: 1970s

The United States was shifting from a manufacture to a service-based economy, which created a demand for salespersons, administrative and clerical workers.

Women filled the jobs created in the service industry and joined the labor force at a dramatic rate.

Pink collar or private household occupations such as childcare providers and household keepers increased during the 1970s.

The Washington D.C. area was experiencing a shortage of housekeepers, child-care providers, and cleaning staffs.

salvadoran migration 1970s1
Salvadoran Migration: 1970s

Salvadoran women were being recruited or invited to work in the nation's capital during the 1970s by American government officials, diplomats, and workers of international non-profit organizations to fill the shortage.

Gender-based migration was created and became the first massive Salvadoran migration flow into the area and established the first social networks. Chain Migration.

This gender-based migration added a critical element to understanding the ebb and flow of entire communities, households, and individuals across national borders

civil war era 1979 1992
Civil War Era ( 1979-1992)

In the 1980s, Salvadorans fled their country in unprecedented numbers, not in search of employment but rather seeking safe haven.

The population movement of the 1980s was qualitatively different because it was, at its inception, a refugee population fleeing a war in which they had become a military objective.

It is estimated that between 1980 and 1989 a total of 400,000 Salvadorans were internally displaced, 300,000 sought refuge in neighboring countries, and approximately 1.5 million migrated to North America

salvadoran migration 1980s
Salvadoran Migration: 1980s

This social systemwas created by the women in the 1970s and contributed to the rapid development of a thriving community that ensures the continuation of cultural traditions and assists co-ethnics in the settlement process during the 1980s.

Significant commercial and residential housing boom and employment opportunities in the Agricultural industry.

salvadoran migration 1980s1
Salvadoran Migration: 1980s

The displacement of the population of El Salvador increased dramatically as the civil war escalated

For example, in 1980, 2,000 people were registered as displaced; in 1983, it grew to 468,000; and the persons displaced grew, in 1985, to 535,000

Chain migration- Many immigrants eventually arrived to large urban centers where earlier immigrants had established a strong Latino community with a strong supporting social network such as the case of Washington D.C.

salvadoran migration 1980s2
Salvadoran Migration: 1980s

By the end of the 1980s, Salvadorans had become a ubiquitous presence in many large cities of the United States.

the largest concentrations being located in Los Angeles, Houston, Boston, New York City and its surroundings (Long Island and Jersey City), Washington, D.C., and San Francisco.

The booming business in the illegal transport of human cargo, commonly known as coyotes, found throughout El Salvador suggests that the flow of Salvadorans wishing to enter the United States did not diminished in the 1990s.

environmental refugees
Environmental Refugees

1998 Hurricane Mitch

Immense amounts of precipitation, resulting in flash flooding and mudslides and overflowed rivers damaged more than 10,000 houses, leaving around 84,000 homeless and forcing 500,000 to evacuate.

Severe crop damage: The flooding destroyed 37% of the bean production, 19% of the corn production, and 20% losses in sugar canes.

Livestock losses: the deaths of 10,000 cattle.

In addition, the flooding destroyed two bridges and damaged 1,200 miles (2000 km) of unpaved roads.

In all, Mitch caused nearly $400 million in damage (1998 USD, $468 million 2006 USD) and 240 deaths

environmental refugees1
Environmental Refugees

2001 Earthquake

Massive earthquakes kill 1,200 people and render another one million homeless (108,261 houses were destroyed — with another 169,692 houses damaged —— and more than 150,000 buildings were damaged in El Salvador)

continued migration
Continued Migration
  • Over 40% unemployment
  • Average daily wage of $6
  • School in rural communities ends at 9th grade
  • Over 50% of the population in Morazan is under the age of 16
  • Fragile economic infrastructure
slide23
The Effect of Cultural Assimilation on the Importance of Family-Related and Nature-Related Recreation among Hispanic Americans Journal article

by Sandra L. Shaull, James H. Gramann; Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 30, 1998

Selective Acculturation

Selective acculturation describes the retention by an ethnic group of certain core cultural traits, such as family organization, child-rearing practices, and traditional foods and music preferences, while other traits of the majority group that contribute to socioeconomic advancement (such as language) are adopted fairly quickly.

Leisure and Selective Acculturation

  • Leisure behavior may be a major contributor to the selective-acculturation process. Gramann, Floyd, and Saenz (1993) argued that leisure in general has two characteristics that enable it to facilitate the expression of traditional cultural values, even in the face of strong pressures toward assimilation. First, leisure is often characterized by fewer social limitations than activity at work or school (Kelly, 1987; Kleiber & Kelly, 1980). Because it is freely chosen relative to the constraints on much other human behavior, leisure provides a potential for cultural expression that may not be possible in more restricted institutional settings.
  • Second, leisure activity occurs mainly in the context of family and friendship groups (Kelly, 1987; Carr & Williams, 1993). In the case of Mexican Americans and other Hispanic populations in the U.S., intimate social life within the home and family tends to be ethnically enclosed (Keefe & Padilla, 1987), i.e., people associate mainly with ...
  • Parks are also Affordable and remind immigrants of the natural environments they have left behind. There is something profoundly therapeutic about reconnecting with simplicity and nature.
latino community
Latino Community

Strong sense of cultural identity

Common language

Over 21 Latin American Countries

Resilient community

Strong work ethic

Highly altruistic

Strong network of community organizations

Cadre of trained and experienced professionals

Well developed media outlets

outreach strategies
Outreach Strategies

Pick a target audience; not all Latinos are alike

Build relationships

Provide interpretation, food, childcare, convenient time and location

Get materials translated professionally and have a distribution plan

Stats

County Survey showed that over 65% of Hispanic Immigrants have LEP

25% of all children born between 2000 to 2006 in the State of Maryland were Hispanic

strategies specific to mps
Strategies Specific to MPS

Issue Brief

Immigrant Usage of Maryland State Parks

Background

The Maryland Park Service is nationally recognized for its beautiful, accessible, diverse, and well maintained park system. Recent significant demographic trends have increased the usage of parks by immigrant communities. This has presented both an opportunity and a challenge to manage the needs and interests of these diverse communities, while also ensuring that all Park policies and regulations are followed and respected.

Possible Action Plan

The following action plan is based on best practices being administered in other Parks systems across the Country as well as general affective strategies to both work with and welcome immigrant communities.

strategies specific to mps1
Strategies Specific to MPS

Phase I – Due Diligence

  • Identify the highest concentration of immigrant usage within State Parks.
  • Study why these particular parks have higher rates of usage.
  • Learn where in the State these populations are primarily coming from.
  • Learn how they learned about the Park.
  • Study what kinds of activities they are engaging within the Park.
  • Identify immigrant serving organizations, coalitions, and community based resources within the communities that immigrants are coming from.
  • Identify key immigrant and multinational advocates in these regions.
  • Identify local government entities/agencies that work on immigrant related issues in Counties, municipalities and City’s.
  • Create a spread sheet with the contacts and organizations collected.
strategies specific to mps2
Strategies Specific to MPS

Phase II – Staffing

  • Consider hiring or repurposing an existing staff member to become an Immigrant Liaison. Responsibilities of this staff member would include, but not be limited to:
    • Attending local community meetings targeted to immigrants across the State in areas with the highest concentration of immigrants using Parks.
    • Recruit and train volunteer Parks “ambassadors” in key geographic regions with higher concentrations of immigrants accessing State parks. These ambassadors would help to extend the reach of the immigrant liaison.
    • Develop and oversee a communications plan consisting of multimedia outreach (radio, web, grassroots, print, etc.).
    • Appear on multilingual radio and television programs as spokesperson for the Parks.
  • Institute a multicultural training for staff.
  • Continue to recruit staff that reflect the multicultural communities that Parks serves across the State.
strategies specific to mps3
Strategies Specific to MPS

Phase III – Public Awareness/Engagement

  • Establish an Immigrants and Parks Collaborative consisting of representatives from immigrant serving organizations, Parks organizations and affiliates, and other immigrant serving organizations. This collaborative would formed to help advise Maryland State Parks on issues and make recommendations on Parks improvements and programming.
  • Make sure that signs regarding rules and regulations are posted clearly and in multiple languages, especially Spanish.
  • Establish a multi media campaign educating the public both about the wonderful opportunities to enjoy Parks and the rules and regulations within them.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Overview of Hispanic statistics
  • Discussed reasons for Migration
  • Gave overview of outreach strategies
  • Questions?

Thank you for listening!!!