The People Involved: • English– Many opposed the war. Soldiers = Low pay/ low will to fight • Patriots- Believed in the cause; would die for freedom • Weak army and high desertion rates • Tories– Loyalists to England Usually older/ wealthier in South, NY, and NJ • Women- (“Republican Women”) Huge help to Am Rev effort Made supplies during boycotts; fed and clothed Patriots; espoused ideals of Am Rev to children; plowed fields; ran household; set up correspondence on current events; spied on Eng 5.Slaves- Fought on both sides for freedom • Ideas of “Unalienable Rights” and Equality
From Sparks to a Fire for Freedom and New Gov’t • Declaration of Independence – • America “divorces” England • Articles of Confederation – 1st U.S. Gov’t after separation from England • Weak Central Gov’t (Powerless President and Congress) • Outcome = Bad Start but it was a Start!
So Then What Happens? • May 1775 = 2nd Continental Congress • Olive Branch Petition • Continental Army Created and Washington leads it • England ignores and sends 20,000 more men to squash rebellion Washington’s plan: 1. Evade England 2. Keep army together 3. Fight only when there was an advantage Wear England down 4. Do not fight European-Style war
Key Points: • The American Revolutionary war started in the year 1775 and it was set off by a British army trying to seize ammunitions in Concord of Massachusetts. • British mainly controlled the areas in New York and Philadelphia. The rest of the land was under the control of colonists. • In 1778, United States of America and France signed a pact of trade and commerce and this allowed them to depend on France as an ally- France declares war!
Basic Story of Am Rev • 1. NY = Am win • 2. Boston = Am holding their own • 3. Am try to invade Canada = Am loses badly • 4. NY = Am looses and retreats (Am realize they can’t win Eur-Style war) • 5. Small Victories Increase Am morale • 6. Bad Winters (Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, Morrison, New Jersey) • 7. NY = England loses army • 8. Virginia = England loses army in S • 9. England gives up
Outcomes: • The House of Commons in Great Britain voted to end the war in 1782 • The British pulled the remaining troops from South Carolina and Georgia in 1782 finally marking the end of the American Revolutionary War. • In 1782, Britain also signed a declaration in Paris that it would cease to combat North America.
Treaty of Paris • Sept. 3, 1783 • Officially ends Am Rev War! • Outcomes: • England = Gracious losers (Wanted to create American-French wedge) and gives up all land from: • Atlantic Coast to Mississippi River • Canada to Florida 2. Americas promise to: a. Treat Loyalists fairly b. Set up fair rules for England to collect Pre-War Debts *Both promises were never kept 3. American’s dream for Freedom is now a reality!
Articles of Confederation Now that the colonists have their own country, how are they going to set it up and keep it functioning on its own?!? The Articles of Confederation was an agreement among the 13 founding states that legally established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution
Why were the Articles of Confederation so weak? • What we didn’t like about the British. . . • Taxation without representation • Large central government (monarchy) had all the power • States always had to listen to the king • All power was in the King’s hands. • King could change the rules/laws any time • So the Articles of Confederation… • Federal government could not tax • States didn’t have to follow laws and treaties. • States had their own laws and didn’t have to follow any other states’ laws • No executive branch or national court system. • Any amendment required all 13 states
What’s the Problem? • Federal government could not tax; very difficult to raise money. • States didn’t have to follow laws and treaties. • Each State had its own laws. • No executive branch or national court system. • Any amendment required all 13 states, so very difficult to modify.