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Reproduction in Poultry. young are not carried in the hens body develop inside a fertilized egg outside the hens body. Different from mammals. begins with male placing the sperm into oviduct of the female male papillae deposits sperm in cloacal wall of female. Process.

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Presentation Transcript
different from mammals

young are not carried in the hens body

  • develop inside a fertilized egg outside the hens body
Different from mammals
process

begins with male placing the sperm into oviduct of the female

  • male papillae deposits sperm in cloacal wall of female
Process
process1

sperm move up the oviduct to the funnel where the egg is fertilized

  • sperm cells remain in oviduct 2-3 weeks after mating
Process
process2

sperm have full fertilizing ability for about 6 days

  • after then - ability of sperm to fertilize egg is decreased
Process
slide6

Structure and Function of the Reproductive System in Poultry

The reproductive anatomy of poultry differ when compared to that of other animal species.

slide7

Male Reproductive System in Poultry

The male poultry anatomy consists of two testes (each with an epididymis and vas deferens) that lead to papillae and a rudimentary copulatory organ.

slide10

Unlike other livestock species, the testes of poultry are located within the abdominal cavity along the backbone.

The epididymis, which still functions in sperm storage, is relatively small in relation to the testes.

The vas deferens extend from the epididymis to the cloaca and are located on each side of the vertebral column.

slide11

The vas deferens extend from the epididymis to the cloaca and are located on each side of the vertebral column.

The vas deferens function in transportation of sperm and as sperm reservoirs.

slide12

Cloaca – the lower end of the avian digestive tract that provides a passageway for products of the urinary, digestive, and reproductive tracts.

slide13
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Papillae – located at the end of the vas deferens and on the floor of the cloaca, the papillae emit semen into the cloaca of the female.

Phallus – a rudimentary copulatory organ that becomes engorged with lymph during mating, which allows semen to be deposited onto the female’s everted cloacus; the phallus is more developed in ducks and geese.

slide14

Androgen – the male sex hormone produced by the testes.

  • Functions of androgen include:
  • Directing sexual activity and the production of sperm,
  • Controlling secondary sexual characteristics of the male, and
  • Influencing social rank or “peck order.”
slide15

Secondary sexual characteristics of include comb growth, crowing or gobbling, spur development, and male feathering.

slide16

Female Reproductive System in Poultry

The functional parts of the female poultry reproductive tract includes one ovary, an oviduct, and the cloaca.

slide18

Mature female poultry have only one functional ovary; the right ovary and oviduct degenerate and cease functioning before the bird reaches sexual maturity.

The ovary appears as a cluster of tiny, gray balls that are the oocytes.

slide19

At maturity, the ovary contains up to 4,000 tiny oocytes from which ovum may develop over time.

An ovum develops by collecting lipid particles from the blood to form the yolk.

slide20

The yolk contains fat for energy and some protein and other nutrients needed by the developing embryo, as well as, a small white dot called the blastodisc that contains the genetic information supplied by the female.

slide21

When mature, the yolk is released by the follicle and engulfed by the infundibulum.

The oviduct is about 25 inches long and consists of five parts: the infundibulum, the magnum, the isthmus, the uterus, and the vagina.

slide22

Infundibulum – funnel-like part of the oviduct that receives the yolk and is the site of fertilization.

Magnum – second part of the oviduct that secretes the thick white or albumen.

Isthmus – third part of the oviduct that adds the two shell membranes.

slide23

Uterus – the fourth part of the oviduct that secretes the thin white, the shell, and the shell pigment.

Vagina – the last part of the oviduct that holds the egg until it is laid.

slide24

From the oviduct, the egg passes to the cloaca and then out of the body through the vent at the time of laying.

slide25

In addition to producing ova, the ovary produces the female sex hormone, estrogen, and the hormone androgen.

The androgen hormone stimulates comb growth and works with other hormones in egg production.

slide27

In poultry, the functions of estrogen include:

  • stimulating the growth of the oviduct,
  • increasing the size of the cloaca during egg laying,
  • modifying feather shape and pigmentation of the female, and
  • increasing the level of fat, phosphorus, and calcium in the blood.
slide28

D. Describe the poultry reproductive system

Rooster

Testicles

Vas deferens

Cloaca

slide29

Testicles: Produce sperm

Vas Deferens: Carries seminal fluid and sperm from testicles to cloaca

Papilla: The organ in the wall of the cloaca that places the sperm inside the female’s reproductive tract

slide30

Hen

Ovary

Magnum

Vagina

Infundibulum

Cloaca

Isthmus

Uterus

slide31

Ovary: Produces the ovum

Infundibulum: Receives yolk from ovary, where sperm is stored, and fertilization takes place

Magnum: Secretes the thick white of the egg

3 Hours

Isthmus: 2 shell membranes are placed around the yolk and thick white

1 ¼ Hours

Uterus: Thin white and outer shell are added to the egg

20 Hours

Vagina: Completed egg is stored for a short time til laid

Total: 25-27 Hours

slide32

1 Infundibulum 4 Uterus

2 Magnum 5 Vagina (with egg inside)

3 Isthmus

slide33

Egg Processing Video

Yolk Membrane

Germinal Disc

Yolk

Air

Cell

Thick White

Outer Shell

Thick White Membrane

Outer Shell Membrane

Thin White

slide35

E. Describe environmental requirements to hatch chicken eggs

  • Natural:
  • Hen lays eggs (1 per day) over period of several days
  • When she has an adequate nest, she begins to lay on them to keep them warm
  • After 21 days, the eggs hatch
  • A hen who is laying on her eggs is referred to as “broody”
slide36

E. Describe environmental requirements to hatch chicken eggs

  • Artificial Incubation:
  • Hen lays eggs and they are placed in an incubator
  • Incubator keeps eggs at proper temperature and humidity
    • -Temperature: 102-103 degrees
    • -Humidity: 60%
  • Eggs are turned 2 times daily to prevent embryo from sticking to the inside of the shell
slide38

F. Candle eggs to determine their interior and exterior quality grade.

Grading Exterior Quality:

1-Cleanliness

- Shell should be free of debris or organic matter

2- Shape

-small end and large end. Not round or oblong

3- Soundness

-No Cracks

slide39

F. Candle eggs to determine their interior and exterior quality grade.

Grading Interior Quality:

1- Air Cell

2- Viscosity of Albumen(white)

3- Check for abnormalities

-Blood/Meat Spots

-Cracks or leaks in shell

slide40

F. Candle eggs to determine their interior and exterior quality grade.

Egg Quality Grades:

AA A B

1/8 inch (Dime)

3/16 inch (Nickel)

3/8 inch (Quarter)

slide41

F. Candle eggs to determine their interior and exterior quality grade.

Albumen Viscosity

1-Hold egg up to light

2- Twist egg rapidly and watch to see how much the yoke moves around

Egg Quality Grades:

AA A B

Some movement

Lots of movement

Little movement

slide42

F. Candle eggs to determine their interior and exterior quality grade.

Loss

Any of the following would result in the egg being graded as a “loss”

-Blood/Meat Spots

-Cracks or leaks in shell

process3

after yolk is fertilized it moves through the tract where the rest of the egg is added

  • egg is laid - embryo grows inside the shell
Process
incubation

keeping eggs at the right temperature and humidity for hatching

  • hen does this by sitting on the eggs
Incubation
incubation2

temperature 102 - 103 F.

  • RH - (relative humidity) 60% for the first 18 days
  • RH 70% for the last 3 days
Incubation
incubation3

eggs are turned twice daily for the first 15 days

  • keeps the embryo from sticking to the inside of the shell
  • Provide a small amount of oxygen
Incubation
oviduct

has five parts

  • Funnel - receives the yolk from the ovary
  • sperm cells received from the rooster are stored here
Oviduct
magnum

secretes the thick white of the egg

  • It takes three hours for the thick white to be placed around the yolk in the magnum
Magnum
isthmus

the yolk and thick white then moves to the Isthmus

  • 2 shell membranes are added
  • It takes 1 1/4 hours
Isthmus
uterus

thin white and outer shell are added to the egg in the uterus

  • egg remains in the uterus about 20 hours
Uterus
vagina

after the egg is completed it moves to the vagina

  • stays in the vagina for a short time and is then expelled from the hens body
Vagina
ovary

In the chicken only the left ovary and oviduct function

  • the ova produced in the ovary develop into egg yolks
Ovary
reproductive failures

general physical condition of animal

  • has an effect on the agility to reproduce
Reproductive Failures
reproductive failures1

too fat or too thin may not become pregnant

  • proper nutrition and exercise can help prevent this
Reproductive Failures
infections

affect reproductive organs

  • some may prevent pregnancy
  • others may cause a spontaneous abortion - miscarriage
Infections
infection

of uterus

  • almost always fatal to embryo or fetus
Infection
hormones

sexual behavior of animals is regulated by the secretion of hormones

  • when not properly secreted the animal may not be able to reproduce
Hormones
slide64

swelling containing fluid or semi solid substance

  • may cause reproduction or breeding problems
  • may be surgically removed depending on the value of the animal
Cyst