Sociocultural analysis part 2
Download
1 / 29

Sociocultural Analysis Part 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 163 Views
  • Updated On :

Sociocultural Analysis Part 2. Social Representations. Moscovici (1973) Shared beliefs, or expectations, held by society (or our group) The foundations of social cognition (thinking) Help us make sense and master our world

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Sociocultural Analysis Part 2' - linore


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Sociocultural analysis part 2 l.jpg

Sociocultural Analysis Part 2


Social representations l.jpg
Social Representations

  • Moscovici (1973) Shared beliefs, or expectations, held by society (or our group)

  • The foundations of social cognition (thinking)

    • Help us make sense and master our world

    • Enable communication: a code for social exchange, naming, classifying

    • Cultural schemas, fundamental to the group identity

    • What is success, beauty, intelligence?

    • Can lead to stereotyping (pos/neg)


Ex social representations l.jpg
Ex: Social Representations

  • Adler (1990)

  • Ask a Russian mother about sharing:

    • “Both children play together with a toy.”

  • Ask an American mother:

    • “One child plays with the toy, then the next child.”


Ex social representations4 l.jpg
Ex: Social Representations

  • Caroline Howarth (2002)

  • Interviewed teen girls in Brixton, London

    • “Being from Brixton” (wrong side of the tracks)

    • Used friends, more personal stories

    • Teens felt positive: “diverse, creative, vibrant”

    • Made friends, enjoyed sports, jobs, liked the police


Stereotypes l.jpg
Stereotypes

  • Social perception, categorization

    • (physical or mental attributes)

    • Generalizations about a group (pos/neg)

    • Attributed to ALL members of the group

    • Affects behavior!


Stereotype threat l.jpg
Stereotype Threat

  • Fear (threat) of being judged by your group identity--confirming the stereotype!

    • This fear makes it happen!


Stereotype threat7 l.jpg
Stereotype Threat

  • Steele & Aronson (1995) Effect of stereotyping on performance

    • 30-min. verbal test, difficult multiple choice questions

  • Group 1: AfAm students told “Testing your verbal abilities”, scored lower than Euro.Amer. students

  • Group 2: AfAm students told “study how problems are solved”, scored higher than 1st group and matched Euro. Amer. scores


Stereotype threat8 l.jpg
Stereotype Threat

Similar studies with females and math scores

Also lower Socio-Economic Status (poor)

Any group can be affected if you believe the stereotype


Stereotype threat9 l.jpg
Stereotype Threat

  • Steele (1997) Spotlight Anxiety

  • Stereotyping turns on this anxiety

    • Emotional distress/pressure

    • Undermines your performance

    • Limits your education prospects


Stereotype threat10 l.jpg
Stereotype Threat

  • Spencer et al (1977) tested the effects of this threat on intellectual performance

    • Gave a difficult math test to students strong in math

    • Predicted women would underperform (they did)

    • Internal pressure in test situations

    • When literature was tested, they were equal

    • Why Girls Drop Math, www.psychologytoday.com


Stereotypes11 l.jpg
Stereotypes

  • The Bell Curve (1994) read pg. 109

    • Controversial book

  • Psych. Herrnstein (Harvard) & Charles Murray

    • Intelligence can predict financial income, job performance, unwanted pregnancy, and crime

    • 1 chapter was about racial differences in IQ, genetics

    • # books=$$, 15,000 or 150,ooo?


Stereotypes12 l.jpg
Stereotypes

  • The Bell Curve (1994)

  • Racial differences in IQ, genetics?

  • Environmental factors?

    • Davenport (sofa) Difference between Manet and Monet?


Do you agree l.jpg
DO YOU AGREE?

  • IQ can predict financial income, job performance, crime?

  • Dr. Theodore “Ted” Kaczynski, Unabomber (University and Airline Bomber), American Mathematician, Prof.

  • IQ 165 (5th grade)

  • Completed HS 15


Do you agree14 l.jpg
DO YOU AGREE?

  • IQ can predict financial income, job performance, crime?

  • Most serial killers, schizophrenics, DID have high IQs


How do stereotypes develop l.jpg
How Do Stereotypes Develop?

  • Campbell (1967) 2 sources:

  • 1. Personal experience with individuals/groups

    • “I knew someone who was Asian…”

  • 2. Gatekeepers: media, parents, others


How do stereotypes develop16 l.jpg
How Do Stereotypes Develop?

  • Stereotypes have a basis in some reality (Grain of Truth Hypothesis)

  • Ex: chickens were cheap to buy/raise (slaves allowed to keep chickens)

  • Deep frying came from west Africa

  • When breaded/fried, it keeps for a longer time (hot south, during segregation of restaurants, easy to travel)


How do stereotypes develop17 l.jpg
How Do Stereotypes Develop?

  • Hamilton & Gifford (1976)

  • Stereotypes are the result of an illusory correlation

    • People see a relationship where there is none

    • Ex: the angry black man (myth)

    • Overestimate all black men

    • Cognitive bias


Confirmation bias l.jpg
Confirmation Bias

  • We seekonly information that supports this relationship

    • Tend to overlook info that contradicts what you already believe

    • Only watch for behaviors that confirm

    • Makes stereotypical thinking hard to change

    • Ex: Sushi restaurant?

    • Asians eating KFC?


Confirmation bias19 l.jpg
Confirmation Bias

  • Snyder & Swann (1978) told students they would meet someone introverted (reserved, cool)

  • or extroverted (outgoing, warm)

  • Asked to prepare questions (confirmed bias and stereotype of personality type)

  • Introvert:“Why do you dislike parties?” “Do you wish you could be more outgoing?”

  • Extrovert:“How do you liven up a party?”


We adopt the in group bias l.jpg
We Adopt the In-Group Bias

  • Rogers & Frantz (1962)

  • White immigrants in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)

    • Developed more stereotype and prejudice the longer they stayed

    • Became a part of the other native white in-group


Social desirability effect l.jpg
Social Desirability Effect

  • May be a confounding variable of research

  • Prejudice seems to be dropping. . .

  • OR

  • Is it “politically incorrect”?

  • Need to find alternative ways to study


Slide22 l.jpg

  • Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behavior.

  • Explain:

    • Give a detailed account including reasons or causes.

    • Describe clearly, and give reasons for a concept, process, relationship or development.


Section 4 2 l.jpg
Section 4.2

  • Explain social learning theory; make reference to 2 relevant studies:

  • Explain:

    • Give a detailed account including reasons or causes. Describe clearly, and give reasons for a concept, process, relationship or development.


Slide25 l.jpg

  • Discuss the use of compliance techniques:

  • Discuss (Consider):

    • Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors, or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.


Slide26 l.jpg

  • Evaluate research on conformity to group norms:

  • Evaluate:

    • Make an appraisal by weighing up the strengths and limitations of the argument or concept under investigation or discussion. Weigh the nature of the evidence available, and identify and discuss the convincing aspects of the argument, as well as its limitations and implications.


Slide27 l.jpg

  • Discuss the term “culture” and “cultural norms.”

  • Discuss (Consider):

    • Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors, or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.


Slide28 l.jpg

  • Examine the role of 2 cultural dimensions on behavior.

  • Examine:

    • Consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue. Approach the question in a critical and detailed way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue.


Slide29 l.jpg

  • Explainemic and etic with examples:

  • Explain:

    • Give a detailed account including reasons or causes. Describe clearly, and give reasons for a concept, process, relationship or development.