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Comparative Criminal Justice Systems. AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON POLICING Reichel / Dammer and Fairchild. Policing. “Policing is no longer a local community service provided by local agencies addressing local problems.” (Dammer and Fairchild, 2006). Question.

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comparative criminal justice systems

Comparative Criminal Justice Systems

AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

ON POLICING

Reichel / Dammer and Fairchild

policing
Policing

“Policing is no longer a local community service provided by local agencies addressing local problems.”

(Dammer and Fairchild, 2006)

question
Question

How will globalization affect the way police agencies (worldwide) perform their job?

Are populations static?

In times of change, what issues

must the police be aware of?

(content, context, time)

the changing role of police
The Changing Role of Police

Multi-jurisdictional

Multi-cultural

Multi-political

Multi-technical

question5
Question

In times of civil tension and

the concern for public order -

how should officer discretion

be controlled in a democratic society?

types of police structures
Centralized

Single: Ireland, Israel, Nigeria, Poland, Saudi Arabia

Multiple Coordinated: Austria, France, England/Wales

Multiple Uncoordinated: Belgium, Italy, Spain, Switzerland

Decentralized

Single: Japan

Multiple Coordinated: Australia, Canada, Germany

Multiple Uncoordinated: Mexico, United States

Types of Police Structures
policing global cooperation
Policing – Global Cooperation
  • Interpol (International Criminal Police Organization); Lyons, France.
  • Europol (European Police Organization); The Hague, the Netherlands.
  • The Amsterdam Treaty/Schengen Agreement
  • European Arrest Warrant (Euro-warrant)
interpol
Interpol
  • Two governing bodies: the General Assembly and the Executive Committee.
  • 183 members, each with their own National Central Bureau (NCB) – a global conduit for communication and data sharing.
  • NCB’s created because of difference in police forces, languages, and legal systems.
  • Major role is to supply transnational crime information to national police forces.
  • Interpol is not based on an international treaty or convention; it is not an international police force, it does not investigate crime.
ncb responsibilities
NCB Responsibilities*
  • Maintain open channels to all police units in its own country.
  • Maintain connections with the NCBs of all other member countries.
  • Maintain liaison with the General Secretariat.
europol
Europol
  • Operates under a mandate for preventing and combating “organized” criminal activities operating in several countries.
  • Its efforts are directed against crimes such as drug trafficking, illicit vehicle trafficking, trafficking in human beings, terrorism, and money laundering.
  • It has no police authority across the EU.
  • Its role is to facilitate the exchange of both personal and nonpersonal data among Europol liaison officers who represent the various law enforcement agencies.
the schengen convention
The Schengen Convention
  • 13 European countries. The creation of a single external border which abolished internal border checks. A common visa program among member countries.
  • Exhibits coordination among police, customs, and judiciary officials in each country. Accentuates cross-border surveillance (customs), hot pursuit (police), and extraditions (judiciary).
  • Member countries have a common data base.
euro warrant
Euro-Warrant
  • An example of harmonization and approximation in the EU.
  • The objective is to replace lengthy extradition procedures.
  • Two key aspects include: Abolishment of the principle of dual criminality for 32 serious offenses; the requirement of the surrender of a country’s own nationals.
questions
Questions

Do you feel that the concepts of

community policing, zero-tolerance policing, and proactive policing

will have an effect on the

global community in the near future?

If so, in what way?

Will heterogeneity have an affect?

civil order control six model nations
Civil Order Control*(Six Model Nations)
  • England: Depends on regular street police although little attention is paid to civil order control forces.
  • France: Specialized troops in both the national police and the military (not always accountable to the public).
  • Germany: Youngest officers do civil order control work; mature officers focus on street work.
  • Japan: Specialized civil order police in each prefecture.
  • China: Public security police with assistance from the army.
  • Saudi Arabia: Relies on the military to handle serious civil disorder.

* Generally, the “front line” responsibility for civil order, as for deviance control, rests with the street police.