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Chapter 3 Minerals. Lesson 1 What is a mineral? Pages 76-84. Chapter Introduction. What are minerals and why are they useful?. Chapter Introduction. SS#1 Sept. 24, 2013. What is a mineral?.

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chapter 3 minerals

Chapter 3Minerals

Lesson 1

What is a mineral?

Pages 76-84

chapter introduction
Chapter Introduction

What are minerals and why are they useful?

chapter introduction1
Chapter Introduction

SS#1 Sept. 24, 2013


What is a mineral?

crystalsolid chemical substance with a regular, repeating arrangement of its atoms

crystallizationwhen particles dissolved in a liquid solidify to form crystals

lava molten rock that erupts onto Earth’s surface

magmamolten rock material under Earth’s surface

Silicate a mineral group that has silicon and oxygen in its crystal structure


What is a mineral?

  • I can explain:
  • What is a mineral? (5 characteristics)
  • What the 6 crystal shapes are?
  • How minerals form? (3 ways plus an example)
  • What the common rock-forming minerals are? (2 groups plus an example)
lesson 1 notes what is a mineral
Lesson 1 Notes – What is a mineral?
  • Minerals arenaturally occurring, inorganic(non-living) solidsthat have adefinite chemical compositionand join together in an orderly crystal structure.


naturally occurring


orderly crystal structure


definite chemical composition


The Structure of Minerals

  • Minerals occur in many different shapes.
  • When a crystal forms under the right conditions and has time to grow, it will develop a characteristic crystal shape.
  • Most of the time, minerals grow in tiny clusters.
crystal shapes
Crystal Shapes –


Four axes, three are equal in length and lie at an angle of 120° from each other.

  • Triclinic
  • 3 axis, all unequal and none at 90° angles.
  • Orthorhombic
  • All axis unequal in length, and 90° degrees from each other.
crystal forms
Crystal Forms –
  • Monoclinic
  • All axis unequal in length. Two of them are at right angles to each other, while the third is lies at an angle other than 90°.
  • Tetragonal
  • Three axes, two are equal in length, one is unequal.)
  • Isometric/Cubic
  • All three axes are equal in length and at 90° degrees from each other.

How do minerals form?

  • Minerals can crystallize from either hot or cool solutions.
  • As water evaporates from a cool solution in a dry environment, solids crystallize out of the water and form minerals.

Example – halite


How do minerals form?(cont.)

  • Hot solutions are made when water flows through cracks in the earth’s crust into deep and hot environments.
  • Sometimes hot solutions carry large concentrations of dissolved solids that eventually become valuable mineral deposits.

Example - gold


How do minerals form?(cont.)

  • Minerals can also form from magma. Magmais molten material stored beneath Earth’s surface.
  • When magma erupts on or near Earth’s surface, it is called lava or ash.

How do minerals form?(cont.)

  • As lava above ground coolssmall crystals form quickly on or near Earth’s surface.
  • Also asmagma cools and crystallizes slowly below Earth’s surface, atoms and ions arrange themselves and form large mineral crystals.

Example – Quartz


The Structure of Minerals

  • The common rock-forming minerals are composed of combinations of elements that are abundant in Earth’s crust.
  • Oxygen and silicon are the two most abundant elements in the crust.

The Structure of Minerals(cont.)

The two main families of rock-forming minerals are the silicates and the nonsilicates.

  • A silicate is a member of the mineral group that has silicon and oxygen in its crystal structure.

Example:Quartz, Feldspar, Olivine and Mica

  • Nonsilicate minerals do not contain silicon.

Example: Calcite and Halite


A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and crystalline form.

  • Crystal shape reflects the internal arrangement of atoms or ions.
  • The most common rock-forming minerals are silicates.
lesson 1 lr1
Lesson 1 – LR1

What type of chemical composition do minerals have?

A. definite

B. indefinite

C. unstable

D. stable

lesson 1 lr2
Lesson 1 – LR2

The common rock-forming minerals are composed of combinations of elements found in which part of the Earth?

A. mantle

B. core

C. crust

D. oceans


Which process occurs when particles dissolved in a liquid or gas solidify and form crystals?

A. evaporation

B. disintegration

C. crystal growth

D. crystallization

1. A mineral is anything solid on Earth.

2. Some minerals form when water evaporates from Earth’s surface.

Do you agree or disagree?