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Durable pavement for Steel Decks. History. late 1950s Shell Oil develops jet fuel and hydraulic oil resistant paving for airport taxiways. 1966 Caltrans uses Epoxy Asphalt on San Mateo- Hayward Bridge (in use). 1976 Bay Bridge 18mm overlay on lightweight concrete (in use).

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Durable pavement for Steel Decks

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  • late 1950s Shell Oil develops jet fuel and hydraulic oil resistant paving for airport taxiways.
  • 1966 Caltrans uses Epoxy Asphalt on San Mateo- Hayward Bridge (in use).
  • 1976 Bay Bridge 18mm overlay on lightweight concrete (in use).
  • 1984 Golden Gate Bridge redecked (in use).
  • 2000 2nd Nanjing (first Asia project).

--5th generation product used for the first time

  • Orthotropic steel decks
    • New construction
    • Replacement paving
    • Re-decking
  • Overlays
  • Temporary chip seals
    • For replacement deck panels
  • High (heavy weight) traffic, strategic roads with long life requirement
  • Fuel and chemical resistant paving

Lionsgate Br

ea chemistry
EA Chemistry
  • Epoxy cross-linked polymer: continuous phase, asphalt: discontinuous phase
  • 2 component binder and 2 component bond coat
    • Part A Resin
    • Part B Asphalts and cross-linkers
  • Ambient temperature reactive cure mechanism
  • Cured polymer is thermoset (won’t melt)
  • Extremely high fatigue resistance
  • High strength bond coat
    • Protects against delamination
    • Ensures composite action with steel
    • Resists high summer deck temperatures
  • Thermoset
    • Will not melt
  • Higher modulus than other flexible pavements
    • Reduces deck deflection

Element meshing

“Epoxy Asphalt has a fatigue life of 2 to 3 orders

of magnitude greater than the PG76-22 I-5 mix…”.

--Rutgers University study

  • Does not oxidize (like all other asphalts)
    • No embrittlement upon aging
  • Low voids (typically ~2 %)
    • Water impermeable
    • No chloride ion penetration
    • No corrosion--no membrane required

High Temperature bond performance

FHWA OECD Long Lived Pavement Study

Turner Fairbanks Highway Research Center

fundamental difference
Fundamental difference
  • HMA Asphalt, SMA, Gussasphalt, PMA are thermoplastics: will melt
  • Epoxy Asphalt is thermoset: will not melt

“Epoxy Asphalt concrete has shown excellent performance including anti-cracking feature

under low temperature, stability under high temperatures and oil-corrosion resistance.…”

--W. Wang, Chang’an University

  • Low permeability prevents deck corrosion
  • Fatigue resistance minimizes cracks
  • 4+ times more stability than standard AC
  • Handles truck wheel overloads (common in Asia)

--Rutgers Univ.

  • No rutting or shoving
  • Use standard AC paving equipment
    • Very high bond strength
    • Paving placement is fast
  • Won’t delaminate

“The superior oxidation resistance of the epoxy asphalt

material was even more obvious in the Cantabro tests…”

--Transit New Zealand—OECD report

ea specifications
EA Specifications

Dense graded mix, ½” (12mm) minus

    • Basalt rock for skid resistance and long wear
  • Low temperature paving (110-121ºC)
    • Time/temp monitoring is critical QC element
    • Similar temps to warm mix
  • Lab simulation (fatigue testing) advised for unique decks
fatigue testing evaluate pavement design on project specific deck
Fatigue testingevaluate pavement design on project specific deck
  • Keys
    • Realistic paving composite specimens
    • Good tests take time
    • Research performance of local materials (aggregates)
    • Use environmental chamber to control extreme temps
chinese standard deck detail
Chinese standard deck detail

Fatigue test specimen

with 3 pt. dynamic load

on 300 mm center

  • 300 mm stiffener spacing
  • 12 mm deck plate (prior to 1999)
  • 14 mm deck plate (after 1999)
  • 50-55 mm EA paving
  • Locus of highest stress is over stiffeners, particularly in truck lanes
  • Dynamic fatigue test is good predictor
asian conditions
Asian conditions
  • High deck temps
    • To 90 °C
  • Extreme temperature cycle between winter and summer
  • Construction QC varies widely
  • Standardized deck design in mainland
asian conditions1
Asian conditions
  • Consistent very high truck wheel overloads
    • To 120 MT on 18 wheelers
    • SMA and gussasphalt sometimes fail as quickly as 2-3 yrs.

SuTong Br.

ea disadvantages
EA: Disadvantages
  • Time and temperature controls critical
    • Controls can lead to higher quality and uniformity
    • Paving plant needs to be within 45-50 minute drive
  • Too complicated
    • Over 35 bridges in Asia in past 10 yrs successfully completed
      • including 1st suspension bridge in Viet Nam
    • ChemCo provides advisors
    • Use test section in convenient location to train local paving crews before deck placement
  • Costs more
    • Cost difference dwarfed by frequent closures and repaving

Thuan Phuoc Bridge

DaNang, Viet Nam

next in n america
Fremont, Portland 2011

Repave in July

MacDonald, Nova Scotia ~2015

Redeck similar to Lionsgate

San Francisco-Oakland Bay ~2012

Single anchored suspension (new East Span)

Next in N. America
  • Reduce pavement weight
  • Local manufacturing
  • OECD-ECMT Joint Transport Research on long life pavements
    • (U.S., U.K., France, Germany, Denmark, New Zealand, Australia)
    • Open graded performance benefits demonstrated
  • Improve fatigue performance in most challenging applications
    • Decks with extremely high wheel overloads
    • Decks with thin plates (12 mm)
    • Hottest tropical environments
Design, test and confirm for wear course success

Epoxy Asphalt, a thermoset material, performs on challenging decks

Epoxy Asphalt offers life cycle cost benefits

Asian lessons learned

Over design surfacing when realistic data not available

Be flexible to adopt local improvements