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Environmental Drilling. By: Josh Humphreys October 8,2006. Why Do We Drill??. Environmental Site Characterization Ground Water Monitoring Exploration Petrochemical Exploration Water Well Drilling. Hand Drilling Methods.

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environmental drilling

Environmental Drilling


Josh Humphreys

October 8,2006

why do we drill
Why Do We Drill??
  • Environmental Site Characterization
  • Ground Water Monitoring
  • Exploration
  • Petrochemical Exploration
  • Water Well Drilling
hand drilling methods
Hand Drilling Methods
  • Probing- Slender steel rod-0.25-0.5 inches in diameter and 3-4 feet long.
  • Used to locate shallow subsurface obstructions (Boulders, utility conduit, piping e.g.)
  • When probe is advanced it forces the formation material out of its path by displacing the soil.
direct push boring
Direct Push Boring
  • Simple, efficient method of obtaining samples and installing wells.
  • Can be accomplished with out the need of heavy equipment, fluids, and doesn’t produce drill cuttings.
  • Well suited for shallow borings in soft materials.
  • Generally small Truck or ATV mounted
direct push boring cont
Direct Push Boring Cont.
  • Forced into the soil by direct application of weight of the machine, by the percussive effect of a hydraulic or mechanical hammer.
  • Some may use a vibratory system to advance the drilling.
auger drilling
Auger Drilling
  • Utilizes a spiral tool form to convey drilled borehole material to the surface.
  • Auger Drilling doesn’t normally require the use of circulatory fluids, unless it is used to cope with blowing , heaving or running sands.
  • Essentially a conveyor with a cutting bit at the bottom to disaggregate formation material, and be lifted to the surface, or forced into the borehole wall.
bucket auger
Bucket Auger
  • Utilize an auger bucket with cutting teeth attached to a square torque bar that passes through a drive mechanism.
  • Generally advances 1 to 2 ft., is withdrawn, and contents are discarded in throw away pile.
  • Depth capacity 30-75 ft.
  • Large diameter holes 16-48 in.
  • Commonly used to drill wells, caissons, and building footings.
continuous flight solid stem augers
Continuous-Flight Solid-Stem Augers
  • Consists of a Plugged Tubluar steel centered shaft, around which a continuous steel strip in the form of a helix is welded.
  • An individual auger section in known as a “flight”, and is normally 5 ft. long.
  • Designed to connect to one another by way of safety pin or large bolt ‘u-pin” or “drive clip”.
  • Torque is transmitted by the rig.
continuous flight solid stem augers cont
Continuous-Flight Solid-Stem Augers Cont.
  • Drill cutter heads are attached to the bottom of the auger.
  • Most of the cutter heads are field replaceable bit types.
  • Bits are hardened or tungsten carbide steel teeth.
  • Designed to cut 0.5 inches larger than the auger. WHY???
  • Most Successful in dry formations or cohesive materials- not frequently used for well installation.
hollow stem augers
Hollow Stem Augers
  • Form of continuous-flight auger in which the helix is wound around, and welded to, a hollow center tube.
  • When tubes are connected, the hollow stem auger will present a smooth, uniform bore throughout its length.
  • Can be done with out drilling fluids.
  • Most common drilling method for monitoring wells.
rotary drilling rig
Rotary drilling rig
  • Carry their own pumps and operating components.
  • Power unit, rotation mechanism, feed or retract system, drum hoist, and other features.
drilling fluids
Drilling Fluids
  • Circulation medium can be liquid, water or drilling mud, or is can be a gas, such as air or foam with additives of various types.
  • Media is forced down through the drill rod and out through the bit and back up between the borehole wall and drill rod.
  • Cools and lubricates, stabilize the borehole and remove drill bit cuttings.
wash boring
Wash Boring
  • Simple, and almost obsolete method of advancing the borehole.
  • Cut by chopping and twisting action of a bit, and disaggregated formation material is washed to the surface by fluid.
sonic drilling
Sonic Drilling
  • Utilizes high frequency vibration, aided by down pressure and rotation.
  • Power for drilling is created by sine generator on top of drill mast, with rapidly rotating eccentric, counter balanced weights that are timed to direct 100% of the vibration @ 0 and 180 degrees.
  • Rotates at 3,000 to 10,800 r/min.
sonic drilling cont
Sonic Drilling Cont.
  • Developed in the 1970’s for use in mineral exploration, but ineffective.
  • Later adapted to environmental exploration in the 1990’s and has been very effective.
  • Drill in mostly unconsolidated formations is very rapid.
  • Continuous sampling cuts down on costs.
  • Can go up to 700 ft. can penetrate boulders, construction debris and bedrock to a point.