Direct v. Indirect Relief. Need-based assistance Elderly poor Disabled Dependent mothers. WPA Social Security. Direct Relief, 1935 (pgs 639-640) . Election of 1932. FDR elected for the democrats Promised a “New Deal” FDR would take action and bring America out of its economic turmoil.
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Direct Relief, 1935 (pgs 639-640)
Election of 1932 (pg 623)
FDR’s fireside chats, 1932 (pg 628)
FDR’s “New Deal,” 1932-1935 (pgs 628-636)
During the first one hundred days of Roosevelt’s presidency, Roosevelt declared a banking holiday until Congress could meet to consider banking reform legislation. This meeting resulted in the Emergency Bank Act that helped dispel the financial panic: Three-quarters of the banks in the Federal Reserve System reopened, and $1 billion in hoarded currency and gold flowed back into the banks within a month. Roosevelt helped end the banking crisis during his first 100 days. Roosevelt helped to pass the Economy Act, which would convince the public and the businesses community that the government was responsible and under the control of competent people. The Economy Act would also balance the federal budget by reducing government employee’s salaries and by reducing pensions to veterans. Roosevelt signed the Glass-Steagall Act of June 1933 that gave the government authority to curb irresponsible speculation and establish the FDIC. The FDIC guaranteed bank deposits up to $2500, restored public confidence in banks, and provided relief to those who deposited money in troubled banks. Roosevelt helped to pass the Agricultural Adjustment Act. The Agricultural Adjustment Act of May 1933 was created to encourage producers of the seven basic commodities (wheat, cotton, corn, hogs, rice, tobacco, and dairy productions) set production limits for their crops. The act would reward farmers who kept some of their land idle. President Roosevelt also delivered his first fireside chat during his first one hundred days. The fireside chats were talks that were given by Roosevelt on the radio. He explained his programs and plans to help the people in his fireside chats to build public confidence in his administration.
It was signed by Roosevelt on August 14th 1935.
President Roosevelt gave public support to the Social Security Act in 1935.
The Social Security Act was a crucial step towards building the nation’s money important social program for the elderly. It created an unemployment insurance system, which employers financed. It established a federal aid system to disabled people and an aid program to dependent children. It created a system of unemployment insurance, which employers alone financed. It established a system of federal aid for the disabled persons, and a program of aid for dependent, children. The act provided considerable direct assistance based on need- to the elderly poor, disabled persons, and dependent children and their mothers. Society perceived the elderly poor, the disabled and dependent children and their mothers as small and truly unable to support them. In later years, programs for the elderly poor, the disabled and dependent children and their mothers would expand until the dimensions that the planners of Social Security did not foresee.
The Court packing Plan was enacted because President Roosevelt believed that the federal courts were overworked and they needed younger blood. Roosevelt inserted liberal judges into the court to provide the court with ‘younger blood’. Roosevelt’s actual purpose is to change the ideological balance of the court so that he could pass legislation without opposition. The Court Packing Plan would have made the federal courts more liberal if it had been successful.
Conservative’s called Roosevelt’s plan overhaul of the federal court system the Court Packing Plan and said that his real purpose was to give himself the opportunity to appoint new, liberal justices and change the ideological balance of the Court from conservative to liberal. Conservatives and Roosevelt’s supporters in the federal court and in Congress were outraged at Roosevelt’s Court Packing Plan. Conservatives and Roosevelt’s supporters believed that his Court Packing Plan demonstrates his hunger for power. Later, the Court became moderate and it seems unnecessary to pass the Court Packing Plan. Congress defeated it. This proved a victory for Franklin Roosevelt because the Court was no longer an obstacle to New Deal reforms. The Court Packing Episode made lasting damages on Roosevelt’s administration. After 1937, southern Democrats and conservatives voted against Roosevelt’s measure more often than in the past. Democrats grew more adverse towards Roosevelt. Roosevelt initiated his Court Packing Plan with to make the court more liberal. The Court Packing plan made Roosevelt less popular, and it provided fuel for growing American aversion to Roosevelt. The Court Packing plan was a factor in contributing the loss of like for the New Deal. The Court Packing plan reduced the popularity of Roosevelt.
Roosevelt announced his Court Packing Plan on February 5th 1937.
Pages 661-662, and page 663
The Cash-and-Carry Policy was established in 1939. The Lend Lease Act was enacted in 1940.
The Cash-and-Carry policy of 1939 showed Congress and Roosevelt’s shift towards leading the nation towards intervention in Europe and war in Europe against Germany and the Axis powers. It showed that Americans favored the allied powers. Great Britain used the carry-and-carry policy imposed by the Neutrality Acts to buy weapons from the US.
In the last months of 1940, Britain was bankrupt and could no longer meet they cash-and carry requirements imposed by the Neutrality Acts. Because of this, President Roosevelt proposed a new system to supply Britain called the “lend-lease”.
The Lend Lease Act of 1940 marked the abandonment of neutrality by the United States. It was part of Roosevelt’s subtle but profound change of America’s role in the war during the last months of 1940. It allowed the US to funnel weapons to the British based on no more than Britain’s promise to return the weapons upon the ending of the war. Congress passed the Lend Lease bill by wide margin on March 1941. Many Congress members supported the Lend-Lease law. When Russia joined the war, Lend-Lease was given to Russia: Now, the US was providing assistance to Hitler’s foes on two fronts, and the American navy was protecting the trade of American goods to the Allied. When the US navy began to protect the goods shipped to, the Allied, German submarines campaigned against American vessels. Roosevelt ordered US submarines to attack German submarines, and the Nazi submarines hit two American destroyers and sank the American Reuben James, killing many American sailors. Upon the destruction of the Reuben James, Congress allowed the United States to arm its merchant vessels to sail into belligerent ports. This permit led to the US launching a naval war against Germany.
The attack on Pearl Harbor involved, a wave of Japanese bombers attacking the US naval base in Hawaii.. A second wave arrived an hour later. The Japanese suffered light losses, and the Americans suffered heavilyat the attack on Pearl Harbor
American forces were greatly diminished in the Pacific because of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Fortunately, no American aircraft carriers-the heart of the Pacific Fleet were at Pearl Harbor on December 7th. The aircraft carriers were spared from destruction. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor occurred because Americans miscalculated, and underestimated indications that Japan intended a direct attack on American forces: Many American officials believed the Japanese would first fight against British or Dutch possessions to the South of the US. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was a failure because it missed ship repair yards, the fuel refueling station, and it united the previously divided and uncertain American people to fight against the Japanese. Because of the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Senate voted unanimously and House voted 388 to 1 to approve a declaration of war against Japan. 3 days later, Germany and Italy (Japan's European allies) declared war on US. Congress reciprocated unanimously. It unified the American people behind war.
Dec. 7, 1941
It lasted from January 30, 1933 to May 8, 1945
Hitler became chancellor on the 30th of January 1933.
The Nazi forces surrendered on January 1933.
The Holocaust was the Nazi campaign to exterminate Jews of Europe. In 1942, Hitler rounded up Jews (Poles, homosexuals, and communists) from all over Europe, transporting them to concentration camps and murdering them. This resulted in a death toll of 6 million Jews and 4 million others. The most notorious death camp was at Auschwitz in Poland.
In the midst of the intensive fight against the Germans, the US government’s leaders were confronted with one of history’s greatest tragedies, the Holocaust. News of the Holocaust reached the public and it convinced the public to pressure the Allies to end the killing or rescue some of the surviving Jews. The US government resisted pleas to help the Jews. The US war department rejected the unfeasible pleas for the planes to destroy the crematoria at the camp. Americans opposed efforts to save the Jews by denying requests that the Allies destroy railroad lines leading to the camp, by rejecting pleas to admit Jewish refuges attempting to escape Europe by denying Jewish requests for assistance. The rejection of pleas to help the Jews was a moral failure, but the rejection was justified because the US and Britain insisted that they needed to focus exclusively on winning the war. Any diversion of energy and attention might distract the allies from achieving victory. Action that is more forceful might have saved some Jews.
The Battle of Midway was from June 3-6, 1942.
It began when Admiral Chester Nimitz of the US realized that Japanese ships were approaching Midway. The Battle of Midway occurred near the small American outpost at Midway Island. The Battle of Midway was a turning point in the victory in the US’ efforts to contain the Japanese.
The Americans surprised the Japanese and scored a huge victory by destroying four aircraft carriers without losing any of its own at the Battle of Midway. Americans avenged the Japanese at the battle of Midway. The Japanese killed many Americans, and destroyed many boats at the battle of Pearl Harbor. The American navy, despite terrible losses, regained control of the central Pacific.
The D-Day invasion began on June 6th 1944. In June 6, 1944, a vast invasion force of allies moved into Vichy France. The D-Day invasion was known as Operation Overlord.
The D-Day invasion was part of a series of powerful Allied drives that resulted in their victory. Because of the D-Day Invasion, German forces were dislodged from virtually the entire Normandy coast within a week. By mid-September, the Allied armies had driven the Germans almost entirely out of France and Belgium. By mid Sept Allied armies drove Germans almost entirely out of France and Belgium. After the D-Day Invasion, Free French forces arrived in Paris and they liberated the city of Paris from four years of German occupation.
Date: 23–26 October 1944
SIG: The largest naval battle of World War II (4 Japanese aircraft carriers sunk), and by some considered the largest naval battle in history. This battle prevented Japan’s expansion into the South. The US successfully won this battle.
Date: 1 April – 22 June 1945
SIG: Largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War of World War II. The battle was also Japan’s last offensive effort against the US. Kamikaze attacks were popular in this battle and lead to many casualties on both sides. The bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki caused Japan to surrender just weeks after the end of the fighting at Okinawa. The US won this battle.
Date: 1939 – 1945
SIG: These were the two powers that fought against each other in World War II. The Axis powers consisted of Germany (Hitler), Italy (Mussolini) and Japan. The Allied powers consisted of the US (Roosevelt), Britain (Churchill) and the Soviet Union (Stalin).
Date: 1942 – 1946
SIG: The best kept secret of WWII. This project was credited with the creation of the atomic bomb used at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Led by Robert Oppenheimer, with the project’s success of the creation of the atomic bomb, the US could finally and easily end the war against Japan by threatening them with the new weapon.
Date: 1944 - 1953
SIG: The policy created by the United States to prevent the spread of Communist subversion (attack from within) in the federal government. A component of the Cold War, this policy was launched in response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge communist influence across the world. The doctrine also prevented Communism from increasing while instituting the basis of American foreign policy.
Date: 1948 - 1951
SIG: Alger Hiss was involved in the establishment of the United Nations. He was later accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury with this charge. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were US citizens convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage during a time of war, and executed. Their charges were made on the account of passing info about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Both Hiss and the Rosenberg’s lead to the growing fear of Communist subversion.
Date: 1950 - 1956
SIG: Joseph McCarthy’s practice of accusing people of being Communist, disloyal, or treasonous without actual evidence. The Wisconsin-based Republican fought against Communist subversion in the US government. McCarthy’s accusatory speeches led to the growing fear of subversive Communism in the American government. Although there was no proof to back up his accusatory claims, he became very popular among the American people.