VEGANIC FARMING AND GARDENING. Veganic farming and gardening is a willingness to balance our existence with the natural world.
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Veganic farming and gardening is a willingness to balance our existence with the natural world.
the soil microorganisms we try not to disturb with excessive tillage, the birds, butterflies, and insects we do not poison with insecticides, the weeds that are not killed with herbicides, and the animals who are not killed for food.
Tillage to manage weeds and water
Manure problems: herbicide contamination, nitrate-N leaching into ground water, human pathogens such as ecoli…..
Veganic our existence with the natural world. Works With Nature to Mimic Natural Plant Eco-Systems:
Reduced tillage – keeping soil covered,
Increased plant diversity,
Regular addition of plant residues.
Increased plant diversity, regular additions of plant residues, & keeping the soil covered promotes a healthy soil & Rhizospere (root-soil zone of greatest soil foodweb activity)
To create a healthy residues, & keeping the soil covered promotes a healthy soil & rhizsphere: add plant residues.
There are many ways to add plant residues…..
Sheet composting or mulching – nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium surface application of grass clippings or hay
In a perfect world we would be able to harvest our own hay for veganic growing and wait until mid July to cut, so most grassland birds (and small mammals) have fledged their young. Though less nitrogen and more viable seed in a late cutting, later cut hay holds up better over time - suppressing weeds longer. A late cutting will allow insects to work flowers - at least until the hay is cut.
Dead nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium Mulch – straw and leaves
weeds between crop rows
Perennials: Rye grass ( nitrogen, phosphorus and potassiumLolium) mixed with hairy vetch – good balance of nitrogen and carbon.
Oats and Red Clover nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
(combinations of grasses and legumes are usually best for weed suppression)
Clovers provide the best levels of nitrogen when mowed or tilled into the soil
Annuals – tilled into the soil
Buckwheat accumulates phosphorus.
Rye ( tilled into the soilSecale) – annual – allelopathic (when tilled into the soil, produces biochemicals that inhibit seed germination and seedling growth).
Snail Medic – drought tolerant once establishedestblished
Winter kills in cold climates established
Brassicas established – Rape – allelopathic:
Inhibits weeds and root rot diseases
Which organic residue to use? mulches or cover crops.
Depends on soil type, texture and pH, precipitation, and temperature…and cropping system
composted wood bark – low nitrogen and phosphorus and pH mulches or cover crops.
composted wood bark/ human waste mix – higher nitrogen and Phosphorus
NUTRIENT CONTENT OF WOODY MATERIALS AND GRASS CLIPPINGS
PH N P K
High carbon materials can temporarily steal nitrogen from crop plants as microorganisms break them down
Brown and dry mulches or cover crops.
Green and succulent
Bio chemical pathways of decomposition both residue types break down to humus, but with different microorganisms and nutrient release rates.Green/succulent = fasterBrown/dry = slower
Organic residues suppressed disease at mulches or cover crops.different levels –alfalfa hay was best.
Suppression of Sclerotinia lettuce drop
TILLAGE AFFECTS DISEASE SUPPRESSION mulches or cover crops.
Pythium Suppression Decreases With Cultivation Intensity
Lourd and Bouhot, 1987
Case study @ Biodesign Farm
LM has different nutrients and C:N ratio at different times of the year. High C:N ratio material (greater than 30-50) may cause temporary unavailability of N and P.
With careful planning, of the year. High C:N ratio material (greater than 30-50) may cause temporary unavailability of N and P.veganic farming and gardening can be bountiful and productive as well as kind to the other organisms with whom we share the earth