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LINE AND STAFF, DECENTRALISATION. LINE AND STAFF…. DEALS WITH THE AUTHORITY RELATIONSHIPS i.e THE PROBLEMS OF LINE AND STAFF WHAT IS POWER, RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY? WHAT ARE AUTHORITY RELATIONSHIPS?. AUTHORITY AND POWER.

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Line and staff decentralisation

LINE AND STAFF,DECENTRALISATION


Line and staff
LINE AND STAFF…

  • DEALS WITH THE AUTHORITY RELATIONSHIPS

  • i.e THE PROBLEMS OF LINE AND STAFF

  • WHAT IS POWER, RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY?

  • WHAT ARE AUTHORITY RELATIONSHIPS?


Authority and power
AUTHORITY AND POWER

  • POWER IS THE ABILITY OF INDIVIDUALS OR GROUPS TO INDUCE OR INFLUENCE THE BELIEFS OR ACTIONS OF OTHER PERSONS OR GROUPS

  • POWER:

  • LEGITIMATE

  • EXPERT

  • REFERENT

  • REWARD

  • COERCIVE


Authority and power1
AUTHORITY AND POWER

  • AUTHORITY IN AN ORGANISATION IS THE POWER IN A POSITION ( AND THROUGH IT THE PERSON OCCUPYING THE POSITION ) TO EXERCISE DISCRETION IN MAKING DECISIONS AFFECTING OTHERS.

  • IT IS POWER, BUT IN AN ORGANISATIONAL SETTING


Line and staff1
LINE AND STAFF

  • LINE FUNCTIONS ARE THOSE WHICH HAVE DIRECT RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCOMPLISHING THE OBJECTIVES OF THE ENTERPRISE.

  • STAFF REFERS TO THOSE ELEMENTS OF THE ORGANISATION THAT HELP THE LINE TO WORK MOST EFFECTIVELY IN ACCOMPLISHING THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OF AN ENTERPRISE.


Line and staff2
LINE AND STAFF..

  • STAFF FUNCTIONS : PURCHASE, ACCOUNTING, PERSONNEL, & QUALITY CONTROL.

  • LINE: PRODUCTION, MARKETING & SALES, FINANCE.

  • WHY CONFUSION?


Line and staff3
LINE AND STAFF…

  • THERE IS A LINE OF AUTHORITY FLOW FROM SUPERIOR TO SUBORDINATE KNOWN AS THE ‘ ‘


Scalar principle
SCALAR PRINCIPLE

  • THE CLEARER THE LINE OF AUTHORITY FROM THE ULTIMATE AUTHORITY FOR MANAGEMENT IN AN ENTERPRISE TO EVERY SUBORDINATE POSITION , THE MORE EFFECTIVE WILL BE REPONSIBLE DECISION MAKING AND ORGANISED COMMUNICATION.

    **


Staff
STAFF…

  • STAFF RELATIONSHIP IS ADVISORY.

  • THE FUNCTION OF PEOPLE IN STAFF POSITION IS TO INVESTIGATE , RESEARCH AND GIVE ADVICE TO LINE MANAGERS TO WHOM THEY REPORT.


Line and staff4
LINE AND STAFF…

  • LINE AND STAFF ARE DISTINGUISHED BY THEIR AUTHORITY RELATIONSHIPS AND NOT WHAT THEY DO

  • E.g. THE PR DEPT IS PURELY STAFF..

    BUT WITHIN THE DEPT THERE WILL BE LINE AND STAFF RELATIONSHIPS


Functional authority
FUNCTIONAL AUTHORITY

  • IT IS THE POWER WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL OR DEPARTMENT MAY HAVE DELEGATED TO IT OVER SPECIFIED PROCESSES , PRACTICES, POLICIES , OR OTHER MATTERS RELATING TO ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN BY PERSONNEL IN DEPARTMENTS OTHER THAN ITS OWN.


Benefits of staff
BENEFITS OF STAFF:

  • THEIR ADVICE IS CRITICAL AS THEY HAVE SPECIALISED KNOWLEDGE IN THEIR AREAS

  • THE ADVICE COULD BE CRITICAL IN SOLVING A PROBLEM


Limitations of staff
LIMITATIONS OF STAFF:

  • DANGER OF UNDERMINING LINE AUTHORITY

  • LACK OF RESPONSIBILITY

  • THINKING IN A VACUUM

  • MANAGERIAL PROBLEMS


Making staff work effectively
MAKING STAFF WORK EFFECTIVELY:

  • UNDERSTANDING AUTHORITY RELATIONSHIPS

  • MAKE LINE LISTEN TO STAFF

  • KEEP STAFF INFORMED

  • COMPLETED STAFF WORK - i.e ADVICE NOT CONTROL

  • MANAGERS HAVE RESPONSIBILITY AND ARE ACCOUNTABLE



Decentralisation1
DECENTRALISATION..

  • IT IS THE FUNDAMENTAL ASPECT OF DELEGATION

  • IT IS MORE OF HOW MUCH OF AUTHORITY IS TO BE DELEGATED RATHER THAN WHAT KIND OF AUTHORITY IS TO BE DELEGATED.


Delegation of authority
DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY

  • THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF DELEGATION IS TO MAKE ORGANISATION POSSIBLE

  • ENABLES DECISION MAKING

  • EFFECTIVE SUPERVISION


How is authority delegated
HOW IS AUTHORITY DELEGATED?

1. WHEN DECISION MAKING POWER IS

VESTED IN A SUBORDINATE BY A

SUPERIOR

2. SUPERIORS CANNOT DELEGATE

AUTHORITY WHICH THEY DO NOT

HAVE.


Process of delegation
PROCESS OF DELEGATION..

  • THE DETERMINATION OF RESULTS EXPECTED FROM PERSONS IN A POSITION

  • THE ASSIGNMENT OF TASKS TO PERSONS IN A POSITION

  • THE DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY FOR ACCOMPLISHING THESE TASKS

  • THE HOLDING OF PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THESE TASKS.


Principles of delegation
PRINCIPLES OF DELEGATION:

  • PRINCIPLE OF DELEGATION BY RESULTS EXPECTED

  • PRINCIPLE OF FUNCTIONAL DEFINITION

  • SCALAR PRINCIPLE

  • AUTHORITY PRINCIPLE

  • PRINCIPLE OF UNITY OF COMMAND

  • PRINCIPLE OF ABSOLUTENESS OF RESPONSIBILITY

  • PRINCIPLE OF PARITY OF AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY

  • GOTO


Principle of delegation by results expected
PRINCIPLE OF DELEGATION BY RESULTS EXPECTED

  • AUTHORITY DELEGATED TO AN INDIVIDUAL MANAGER SHOULD BE ADEQUATE TO ENSURE THE ABILITY TO ACCOMPLISH RESULTS EXPECTED.

    BACK


Principle of functional definition
PRINCIPLE OF FUNCTIONAL DEFINITION

  • THE MORE A POSITION OR A DEPARTMENT HAS CLEAR DEFINITIONS OF RESULTS EXPECTED , ACTIVITIES TO BE UNDERTAKEN , ORGANISATIONAL AUTHORITY DELEGATED, AND AUTHORITY AND INFORMATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER POSITIONS UNDERSTOOD, THE MORE ADEQUATELY THE RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUALS CAN CONTRIBUTE TOWARDS ACCOMPLISHING ENTERPRISE OBJECTIVES.

    BACK


Authority level principle
AUTHORITY LEVEL PRINCIPLE

  • MAINTAINANCE OF INTENDED DELEGATION REQUIRES THAT DECISIONS WITHIN THE AUTHORITY COMPETENCE OF INDIVIDUALS BE MADE BY THEM AND NOT BE REFERRED UPWARD IN THE ORGANISATION STRUCTURE.



Principle of unity of command
PRINCIPLE OF UNITY OF COMMAND

  • THE MORE COMPLETELY AN INDIVIDUAL HAS A REPORTING RELATIONSHIP TO A SINGLE SUPERIOR , THE LESS THE PROBLEM OF CONFLICT IN INSTRUCTIONS AND THE GREATER THE FEELING OF PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR RESULTS.

  • BACK


Principle of absoluteness of responsibility
PRINCIPLE OF ABSOLUTENESS OF RESPONSIBILITY

  • THE RESPONSIBILITY OF SUBORDINATES TO THEIR SUPERIORS FOR PERFORMANCE IS ABSOLUTE , ONCE THEY HAVE ACCEPTED AN ASSIGNMENT AND THE POWER TO CARRY IT OUT, AND THE SUPERIORS CANNOT ESCAPE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ORGANISATION ACTIVITIES OF THEIR SUBORDINATES.

  • BACK


Principle of parity of responsibility and authority
PRINCIPLE OF PARITY OF RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY

  • THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACTIONS CANNOT BE GREATER THAN THAT IMPLIED BY AUTHORITY DELEGATED NOR SHOULD IT BE LESS.

  • BACK


The art of delegation
THE ART OF DELEGATION

  • RECEPTIVENESS

  • WILLINGNESS TO LET GO

  • WILLINGNESS TO LET OTHERS MAKE MISTAKES

  • WILLINGNESS TO TRUST SUBORDINATES

  • WILLINGNESS TO ESTABLISH AND USE BROAD CONTROLS


Factors determining degree of decentralisation
FACTORS DETERMINING DEGREE OF DECENTRALISATION:

  • COSTLINESS OF THE DECISION

  • UNIFORMITY OF POLICY

  • HISTORY OF THE ENTERPRISE

  • MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY

  • ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES

  • AVAILABILITY OF MANAGERS


Recentralisation
RECENTRALISATION

  • WHAT IS IT?

  • HOW MUCH TO DECENTRALISE?

    1. Verifiable objectives

    2. Technique of organisation i.e. state each manager’s duites and responsibilities

    3. Character of top leadership

    4. Stretch span of management to the maximum

    5.Promote managers only when they have good subordinates to take their place



Some mistakes in organising
SOME MISTAKES IN ORGANISING..

  • FAILURE TO PLAN PROPERLY

  • FAILURE TO DELEGATE AUTHORITY

  • FAILURE TO BALANCE DELEGATION

  • GRANTING AUTHORITY WITHOUT RESPONSIBILITY

  • HOLDING PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE WHO DO NOT HAVE AUTHORITY